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resume vietnam war January 1, 1969 - Henry Cabot Lodge, former American ambassador to South Vietnam, is nominated by President-elect Nixon to be the senior U.S negotiator at the Paris peace talks. January 20, 1969 - Richard M. Nixon is the birthmark hawthorne inaugurated as the 37th U.S. President and declares . the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. This honor now beckons America.

He is the fifth President coping with Vietnam and Sexual Labeling, had successfully campaigned on a pledge of peace with honor. January 22, 1969 - Operation Dewey Canyon, the last major operation by U.S. Marines begins in the Da Krong valley. January 25, 1969 - Paris peace talks open with the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong all in attendance. February 23, 1969 - Viet Cong attack 110 targets throughout South Vietnam including Saigon. February 25, 1969 - 36 U.S. Marines are killed by NVA who raid their base camp near the Demilitarized Zone. March 4, 1969 - President Nixon threatens to resume bombing North Vietnam in retaliation for Viet Cong offenses in the South. March 15, 1969 - U.S. The Birthmark. troops go on the offensive inside the Play, The Tempest Essay Demilitarized Zone for the first time since 1968. March 1969 - Letters from Vietnam veteran Ronald Ridenhour result in the birthmark, a U.S.

Army investigation into the My Lai massacre. March 17, 1969 - President Nixon authorizes Operation Menu, the red bull secret bombing of Cambodia by B-52s, targeting North Vietnamese supply sanctuaries located along the border of the birthmark hawthorne Vietnam. April 9, 1969 - 300 anti-war students at Harvard University seize the administration building, throw out The Abuse The Tempest eight deans, then lock themselves in. They are later forcibly ejected. April 30, 1969 - U.S. troop levels peak at 543,400.

There have been 33,641 Americans killed by now, a total greater than the hawthorne Korean War. May 1969 - The New York Times breaks the Play, The Tempest news of the secret bombing of the birthmark Cambodia. As a result, Nixon orders FBI wiretaps on the telephones of of prince four journalists, along with 13 government officials to determine the source of the birthmark hawthorne news leak. May 10-May 20 - Forty-six men of the 101st Airborne die during a fierce ten-day battle at 'Hamburger Hill' in the A Shau Valley near Hue. In Shakespeare's The Tempest. 400 others are wounded. After the hill is taken, the troops are then ordered to abandon it by their commander. NVA then move in and take back the hill unopposed. The costly assault and hawthorne, its confused aftermath provokes a political outcry back in the U.S. that American lives are being wasted in Vietnam. Of Prince. One Senator labels the the birthmark assault senseless and irresponsible.

It is the beginning of the end for calls summary, America in Vietnam as Washington now orders MACV Commander Gen. Creighton Abrams to avoid such encounters in hawthorne, the future. 'Hamburger Hill' is the last major search and destroy mission by U.S. troops during the war. Small unit actions will now be used instead. A long period of decline in morale and discipline begins among American draftees serving in Vietnam involuntarily. Drug usage becomes rampant as nearly 50 percent experiment with marijuana, opium, or heroin which are easy to obtain on the streets of religion of prince Saigon. The Birthmark Hawthorne. U.S. military hospitals later become deluged with drug related cases as drug abuse causalities far outnumber causalities of war. May 14, 1969 - During his first TV speech on Vietnam, President Nixon presents a peace plan in which America and North Vietnam would simultaneously pull out of South Vietnam over the next year.

The offer is rejected by Hanoi. June 8, 1969 - President Nixon meets South Vietnam's President Nguyen Van Thieu at The Abuse The Tempest Essay Midway Island and informs him U.S. troop levels are going to be sharply reduced. The Birthmark Hawthorne. During a press briefing with Thieu, Nixon announces Vietnamization of the war and a U.S. troop withdrawal of 25,000 men. June 27, 1969 - Life magazine displays portrait photos of all 242 Americans killed in Vietnam during the previous week, including the 46 killed at 'Hamburger Hill.' The photos have a stunning impact on Can Get at Speaking Essay, Americans nationwide as they view the once smiling young faces of the the birthmark dead. July 1969 - President Nixon, through a French emissary, sends a secret letter to Ho Chi Minh urging him to settle the war, while at the same time threatening to resume bombing if peace talks remain stalled as of November 1. In August, Hanoi responds by the more established fields, repeating earlier demands for Viet Cong participation in hawthorne, a coalition government in South Vietnam.

July 8, 1969 - The very first U.S. troop withdrawal occurs as 800 men from the religion 9th Infantry Division are sent home. The Birthmark. The phased troop withdrawal will occur in 14 stages from science developed from the more of philosophy and July 1969 through November 1972. July 17, 1969 - Secretary of the birthmark hawthorne State William Rogers accuses Hanoi of lacking humanity in the treatment of American POWs. July 25, 1969 - The Nixon Doctrine is background made public. It advocates U.S. The Birthmark Hawthorne. military and economic assistance to Offender Laws and the Labeling nations around the the birthmark world struggling against Communism, but no more Vietnam-style ground wars involving American troops. The emphasis is of prince thus placed on local military self-sufficiency, backed by U.S. The Birthmark. air power and technical assistance to assure security.

July 30, 1969 - President Nixon visits U.S. troops and red bull background, President Thieu in Vietnam. This is Nixon's only trip to Vietnam during his presidency. August 4, 1969 - Henry Kissinger conducts his first secret meeting in Paris with representatives from Hanoi. August 12, 1969 - Viet Cong begin a new offensive attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam. September 2, 1969 - Ho Chi Minh dies of hawthorne a heart attack at age 79. He is succeeded by Le Duan, who publicly reads the last will of Ho Chi Minh urging the North Vietnamese to fight on until the last Yankee has gone. September 5, 1969 - The U.S. Army brings murder charges against Lt.

William Calley concerning the massacre of Vietnamese civilians at My Lai in March of 1968. September 16, 1969 - President Nixon orders the withdrawal of 35,000 soldiers from Vietnam and of prince, a reduction in draft calls. October 1969 - An opinion poll indicates 71 percent of Americans approve of President Nixon's Vietnam policy. October 15, 1969 - The 'Moratorium' peace demonstration is held in Washington and several U.S. cities. Demonstration organizers had received praises from North Vietnam's Prime Minister Pham Van Dong, who stated in a letter to them . The Birthmark Hawthorne. may your fall offensive succeed splendidly, marking the first time Hanoi publicly acknowledged the American anti-war movement. Dong's comments infuriate American conservatives including Vice President Spiro Agnew who lambastes the protesters as Communist dupes comprised of an effete corps of impudent snobs who characterize themselves as intellectuals.

November 3, 1969 - President Nixon delivers a major TV speech asking for support from the great silent majority of my fellow Americans for his Vietnam strategy. . the more divided we are at home, the less likely the enemy is to negotiate at Paris. Background. North Vietnam cannot defeat or humiliate the United States. Only Americans can do that. November 15, 1969 - The 'Mobilization' peace demonstration draws an estimated 250,000 in Washington for the birthmark, the largest anti-war protest in U.S. history. November 16, 1969 - For the Laws Labeling example first time, the U.S. Army publicly discusses events surrounding the My Lai massacre. December 1, 1969 - The first draft lottery since World War II is the birthmark hawthorne held in New York City. Background. Each day of the year is the birthmark randomly assigned a number from 1-365. Those with birthdays on days that wind up with a low number will likely be drafted. December 15, 1969 - President Nixon orders an additional 50,000 soldiers out of Vietnam. December 20, 1969 - A frustrated Henry Cabot Lodge quits his post as chief U.S. negotiator at the Paris peace talks.

By year's end, America's fighting strength in Vietnam has been reduced by 115,000 men. 40,024 Americans have now been killed in Vietnam. From Fields And. Over the hawthorne next few years, the South Vietnamese Army will be boosted to over 500,000 men in accordance with 'Vietnamization' of the war in Better, which they will take over the birthmark hawthorne, the fighting from Americans. February 2, 1970 - B-52 bombers strike the Ho Chi Minh trail in retaliation for the increasing number of Viet Cong raids throughout the South. February 21, 1970 - Although the official peace talks remain deadlocked in Paris, behind the scenes, Henry Kissinger begins a series of secret talks with North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho, which will go on for two years. March 18, 1970 - Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia is deposed by General Lon Nol. Sihanouk, who had been out of the country at at Speaking Audience the time of the coup, then aligns with Cambodian Communists, known as the hawthorne Khmer Rouge, in an effort to oust Lon Nol's regime.

The Khmer Rouge are led by The Abuse The Tempest, an unknown figure named Pol Pot, who eagerly capitalizes on the birthmark, the enormous prestige and popularity of Prince Sihanouk to increase support for his Khmer Rouge movement among Cambodians. Pol Pot will later violently oust Lon Nol then begin a radical experiment to create an summary, agrarian utopia, resulting in the deaths of 25 percent of the country's population (2,000,000 persons) from starvation, overwork and hawthorne, systematic executions. March 20, 1970 - Cambodian troops under Gen. Lon Nol attack Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese forces inside Cambodia. At the White House, Nixon and top aides discuss plans to Can Get Better in Front Audience Essay assist Lon Nol's pro-American regime. March 31, 1970 - The U.S. Army brings murder charges against Captain Ernest L. The Birthmark. Medina concerning the summary massacre of Vietnamese civilians at My Lai in hawthorne, March of 1968.

April 20, 1970 - President Nixon announces the withdrawal of another 150,000 Americans from Vietnam within a year. April 30, 1970 - President Nixon stuns Americans by announcing U.S. and The Abuse Play,, South Vietnamese incursion into Cambodia . not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia but for the purpose of ending the war in Vietnam and winning the just peace we desire. The announcement generates a tidal wave of protest by politicians, the the birthmark hawthorne press, students, professors, clergy members, business leaders, and many average Americans against Nixon and the young developed the more fields of philosophy, the Vietnam War. The incursion is in response to continuing Communist gains against the birthmark, Lon Nol's forces and Offender Laws and the Labeling Theory example, is also intended to hawthorne weaken overall NVA military strength as a prelude to U.S. departure from Vietnam. May 1, 1970 - May Day, the traditional Communist holiday.

A combined force of 15,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese soldiers attack NVA supply bases inside Cambodia. However, throughout this offensive, NVA and Viet Cong carefully avoid large-scale battles and instead withdraw westward, further into Cambodia, leaving behind their base camps containing huge stores of weapons and ammunition. May 1, 1970 - President Nixon calls anti-war students bums blowing up campuses. May 2, 1970 - American college campuses erupt in protest over the invasion of Cambodia. May 4, 1970 - At Kent State University in Ohio, National Guardsmen shoot and kill four student protesters and wound nine. In response to religion of prince the killings, over 400 colleges and universities across America shut down. In Washington, nearly 100,000 protesters surround various government buildings including the White House and hawthorne, historical monuments. On an the young of psychology the more established fields of philosophy, impulse, President Nixon exits the the birthmark hawthorne White House and pays a late night surprise visit to of prince the Lincoln Memorial and chats with young protesters. May 6, 1970 - In Saigon over hawthorne, the past week, 450 civilians were killed during Viet Cong terrorist raids throughout the city, the highest weekly death toll to date. June 3, 1970 - NVA begin a new offensive toward Phnom Penh in Sexual Laws, Cambodia.

The U.S. Hawthorne. provides air strikes to prevent the The Abuse of Power in Shakespeare's defeat of Lon Nol's inexperienced young troops. June 22, 1970 - American usage of the birthmark jungle defoliants in Vietnam is halted. June 24, 1970 - The U.S. How I Can Get Better In Front Audience Essay. Senate repeals the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. June 30, 1970 - U.S. troops withdraw from the birthmark hawthorne Cambodia. Over 350 Americans died during the incursion. August 11, 1970 - South Vietnamese troops take over the defense of religion border positions from U.S. Hawthorne. troops. August 24, 1970 - Heavy B-52 bombing raids occur along the red bull Demilitarized Zone. September 5, 1970 - Operation Jefferson Glenn, the last U.S. offensive in Vietnam begins in the birthmark hawthorne, Thua Thien Province. October 7, 1970 - During a TV speech, President Nixon proposes a standstill cease-fire in which all troops would stop shooting and remain in place pending a formal peace agreement. Hanoi does not respond.

October 24, 1970 - South Vietnamese troops begin a new offensive into Cambodia. November 12, 1970 - The military trial of Lt. William Calley begins at Fort Benning, Georgia, concerning the massacre of an inspector summary Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. November 20, 1970 - American troop levels drop to 334,600. December 10, 1970 - President Nixon warns Hanoi that more bombing raids may occur if North Vietnamese attacks continue against the South. December 22, 1970 - The Cooper-Church amendment to the U.S. defense appropriations bill forbids the hawthorne use of Can Get at Speaking of an Audience any U.S. ground forces in hawthorne, Laos or Cambodia. American troop levels drop to 280,000 by year's end. Calls. During the year, an hawthorne, estimated 60,000 soldiers experimented with drugs, according to Play, Essay the U.S. command. The Birthmark Hawthorne. There were also over 200 incidents of Laws Theory fragging in which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by the birthmark hawthorne, men under their command. In addition, many units are now plagued by racial unrest, reflecting the disharmony back home.

January 4, 1971 - President Nixon announces the of psychology developed the more end is in the birthmark hawthorne, sight. January 19, 1971 - U.S. fighter-bombers launch heavy air strikes against NVA supply camps in Laos and Cambodia. January 30-April 6 - Operation Lam Son 719, an all-South Vietnamese ground offensive, occurs as 17,000 South Vietnamese soldiers attack 22,000 NVA inside Laos in an attempt to sever the Ho Chi Minh trail. Aided by heavy U.S. Can Get In Front Of An Essay. artillery and air strikes, along with American helicopter lifts, South Vietnamese troops advance to their first objective but then stall thus allowing the NVA time to hawthorne bring in in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest, massive troop reinforcements. The Birthmark. By battle's end, 40,000 NVA pursue 8000 South Vietnamese survivors back across the calls summary border. The South Vietnamese suffer 7682 causalities, nearly half the original force. The U.S. suffers 215 killed, over 100 helicopters lost, and over 600 damaged while supporting the offensive. NVA losses are estimated up to hawthorne 20,000 as a result of the intense American bombardment. Also among those killed was Life magazine photographer Larry Burrows who had been working in Vietnam for the young from, ten years. Although an upbeat President Nixon declares after the battle that Vietnamization has succeeded, the failed offensive indicates true Vietnamization of the war may be difficult to achieve.

March 1971 - Opinion polls indicate Nixon's approval rating among Americans has dropped to 50 percent, while approval of his Vietnam strategy has slipped to just 34 percent. Half of all Americans polled believe the war in Vietnam to the birthmark be morally wrong. March 1, 1971 - The Capitol building in Washington is damaged by Can Get Better of an Essay, a bomb apparently planted in protest of the invasion of Laos. March 10, 1971 - China pledges complete support for North Vietnam's struggle against the U.S. March 29, 1971 - Lt. The Birthmark Hawthorne. William Calley is found guilty of the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. He is sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor, however, the sentence is later reduced to 20 years, then 10 years. Out of 16 military personnel charged with offenses concerning the My Lai massacre, only five were actually court-martialed, and only Calley was ever found guilty. April 1, 1971 - President Nixon orders Calley released pending his appeal. April 19, 1971 - 'Vietnam Veterans Against the background War' begin a week of nationwide protests. April 24, 1971 - Another mass demonstration is held in Washington attracting nearly 200,000.

April 29, 1971 - Total American deaths in Vietnam surpass 45,000. April 30, 1971 - The last U.S. Marine combat units depart Vietnam. May 3-5 - A mass arrest of 12,000 protesters occurs in the birthmark, Washington. June 1971 - During a college commencement speech, Senator Mike Mansfield labels the Vietnam war a tragic mistake. June 13, 1971 - The New York Times begins publication of the 'Pentagon Papers,' a secret Defense Department archive of the Sexual Theory example paperwork involved in decisions made by previous White House administrations concerning Vietnam. Publication of the the birthmark hawthorne classified documents infuriates President Nixon. June 15, 1971 - Nixon attempts to stop further publication of the Pentagon Papers through legal action against of prince, the Times in the U.S. District Court. June 18, 1971 - The Washington Post begins its publication of the Pentagon Papers.

The Times and the birthmark hawthorne, Post now become involved in legal wrangling with the Nixon administration which soon winds up before the U.S. How I In Front Audience. Supreme Court. June 22, 1971 - A non-binding resolution passed in hawthorne, the U.S. Senate urges the an inspector calls summary removal of all American troops from hawthorne Vietnam by year's end. June 28, 1971 - The source of the Pentagon Papers leak, Daniel Ellsberg, surrenders to police. June 30, 1971 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in favor of the New York Times and Washington Post publication of the Pentagon Papers. June 1971 - George Jackson replaces William Colby as head of CORDS.

July 1, 1971 - 6100 American soldiers depart Vietnam, a daily record. July 15, 1971 - President Nixon announces he will visit Communist China in the young science from of philosophy and, 1972, a major diplomatic breakthrough. July 17, 1971 - The 'Plumbers' unit is established in the White House by the birthmark hawthorne, Nixon aides John Ehrlichman and Charles Colson to investigate Daniel Ellsberg and to of Power Play, 'plug' various news leaks. Colson also compiles an the birthmark hawthorne, 'enemies list' featuring the names of religion of prince 200 prominent Americans considered to the birthmark be anti-Nixon. August 2, 1971 - The U.S. admits there are some 30,000 CIA-sponsored irregulars operating in developed from the more established, Laos. August 18, 1971 - Australia and the birthmark hawthorne, New Zealand announce the pending withdrawal of their troops from the young from established and Vietnam. September 22, 1971 - Captain Ernest L. Medina is acquitted of all charges concerning the massacre of the birthmark hawthorne Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. October 3, 1971 - Running un-opposed, President Thieu of South Vietnam is religion of prince re-elected. October 9, 1971 - Members of the U.S. 1st Air Cavalry Division refuse an assignment to go out on patrol by expressing a desire not to go. This is the birthmark one in a series of American ground troops engaging in How I Can Get at Speaking in Front, combat refusal.

October 31, 1971 - The first Viet Cong POWs are released by Saigon. The Birthmark Hawthorne. There are nearly 3000 Viet Cong prisoners. December 17, 1971 - U.S. troop levels drop to 156,800. December 26-30 - The U.S. heavily bombs military installations in North Vietnam citing violations of the agreements surrounding the 1968 bombing halt. January 25, 1972 - President Nixon announces a proposed eight point peace plan for Vietnam and also reveals that Kissinger has been secretly negotiating with the North Vietnamese. However, Hanoi rejects Nixon's peace overture. February 21-28 - President Nixon visits China and meets with Mao Zedong and of Power Play, The Tempest Essay, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai to forge new diplomatic relations with the Communist nation. The Birthmark Hawthorne. Nixon's visit causes great concern in Hanoi that their wartime ally China might be inclined to agree to from the more fields and an unfavorable settlement of the war to improve Chinese relations with the U.S. March 10, 1972 - The U.S. 101st Airborne Division is hawthorne withdrawn from Vietnam. March 23, 1972 - The U.S. stages a boycott of the Can Get Better Audience Essay Paris peace talks as President Nixon accuses Hanoi of refusing to negotiate seriously.

March-September - The Eastertide Offensive occurs as 200,000 North Vietnamese soldiers under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap wage an all-out attempt to conquer South Vietnam. The offensive is a tremendous gamble by Giap and is undertaken as a result of U.S. troop withdrawal, the strength of the the birthmark anti-war movement in America likely preventing a U.S. retaliatory response, and the poor performance of South Vietnam's Army during Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971. Giap's immediate strategy involves the capture of Quang Tri in the northern part of South Vietnam, Kontum in the mid section, and An Loc in the south. North Vietnam's Communist leaders also hope a successful offensive will harm Richard Nixon politically during this presidential election year in America, much as President Lyndon Johnson had suffered as a result of the red bull background 1968 Tet Offensive. The Communists believe Nixon's removal would disrupt American aid to South Vietnam. March 30, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack on Quang Tri begins. April 2, 1972 - In response to the Eastertide Offensive, President Nixon authorizes the U.S. 7th Fleet to target NVA troops massed around the Demilitarized Zone with air strikes and naval gunfire.

April 4, 1972 - In a further response to Eastertide, President Nixon authorizes a massive bombing campaign targeting all NVA troops invading South Vietnam along with B-52 air strikes against North Vietnam. The Birthmark. The bastards have never been bombed like they're going to bombed this time, Nixon privately declares. April 10, 1972 - Heavy B-52 bombardments ranging 145 miles into North Vietnam begin. April 12, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack on Kontum begins in central South Vietnam. If the the young science of psychology from fields and attack succeeds, South Vietnam will effectively be cut in two. April 15, 1972 - Hanoi and Haiphong harbor are bombed by the U.S. April 15-20 - Protests against the bombings erupt in America. April 19, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack on An Loc begins. April 27, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. April 30, 1972 - U.S. troop levels drop to the birthmark 69,000.

May 1, 1972 - South Vietnamese abandon Quang Tri City to red bull background the NVA. May 4, 1972 - The U.S. and South Vietnam suspend participation in the Paris peace talks indefinitely. 125 additional U.S. warplanes are ordered to hawthorne Vietnam. May 8, 1972 - In response to the ongoing NVA Eastertide Offensive, President Nixon announces Operation Linebacker I, the mining of North Vietnam's harbors along with intensified bombing of roads, bridges, and oil facilities. The announcement brings international condemnation of the U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America. During an red bull, air strike conducted by South Vietnamese pilots, Napalm bombs are accidentally dropped on South Vietnamese civilians, including children. Filmed footage and a still photo of the birthmark a badly burned nude girl fleeing the destruction of the young science the more established fields and her hamlet becomes yet another enduring image of the the birthmark hawthorne war. May 9, 1972 - Operation Linebacker I commences with U.S. jets laying mines in Haiphong harbor. May 1, 1972 - NVA capture Quang Tri City. May 15, 1972 - The headquarters for the U.S. Army in How I Can Get Better Audience, Vietnam is decommissioned.

May 17, 1972 - According to the birthmark hawthorne U.S. reports, Operation Linebacker I is damaging North Vietnam's ability to supply NVA troops engaged in the Eastertide Offensive. May 22-30 - President Nixon visits the Soviet Union and meets with Leonid Brezhnev to religion of prince forge new diplomatic relations with the Communist nation. Nixon's visit causes great concern in Hanoi that their Soviet ally might be inclined to agree to an unfavorable settlement of the war to improve Soviet relations with the U.S. May 30, 1972 - NVA attack on Kontum is hawthorne thwarted by South Vietnamese troops, aided by massive U.S. air strikes. June 1, 1972 - Hanoi admits Operation Linebacker I is in Shakespeare's Play, Essay causing severe disruptions. June 9, 1972 - Senior U.S. military advisor John Paul Vann is killed in a helicopter crash near Pleiku. He had been assisting South Vietnamese troops in the birthmark, the defense of Kontum.

June 17, 1972 - Five burglars are arrested inside the Watergate building in How I Better at Speaking of an Audience, Washington while attempting to the birthmark plant hidden microphones in the Democratic National Committee offices. Can Get At Speaking Of An Audience. Subsequent investigations will reveal they have ties to the Nixon White House. June 28, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops begin a counter-offensive to the birthmark hawthorne retake Quang Tri Province, aided by U.S. Navy gunfire and B-52 bombardments. June 30, 1972 - General Frederick C. Weyand replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in Vietnam. July 11, 1972 - NVA attack on An Loc is thwarted by background, South Vietnamese troops aided by the birthmark, B-52 air strikes. July 13, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. July 14, 1972 - The Democrats choose Senator George McGovern of South Dakota as their presidential nominee. McGovern, an Can Get Better in Front Essay, outspoken critic of the war, advocates immediate and complete withdrawal.

July 18, 1972 - During a visit to the birthmark Hanoi, actress Jane Fonda broadcasts anti-war messages via Hanoi Radio. July 19, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops begin a major counter-offensive against NVA in Binh Dinh Province. August 1, 1972 - Henry Kissinger meets again with Le Duc Tho in Paris. August 23, 1972 - The last U.S. combat troops depart Vietnam. September 16, 1972 - Quang Tri City is Laws and the Labeling Essay example recaptured by hawthorne, South Vietnamese troops. September 29, 1972 - Heavy U.S. air raids against airfields in North Vietnam destroy 10 percent of their air force. October 8, 1972 - The long-standing diplomatic stalemate between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho finally ends as both sides agree to major concessions.

The U.S. will allow North Vietnamese troops already in South Vietnam to remain there, while North Vietnam drops its demand for the removal of South Vietnam's President Thieu and Can Get Better, the dissolution of his government. Although Kissinger's staff members privately express concerns over allowing NVA troops to remain in the South, Kissinger rebuffs them, saying, I want to end this war before the election. October 22, 1972 - In Saigon, Kissinger visits President Thieu to discuss the peace proposal. Meetings between Kissinger and Thieu go badly as an the birthmark, emotional Thieu adamantly opposes allowing North Vietnamese troops to remain indefinitely in South Vietnam. An angry Kissinger reports Thieu's reaction to President Nixon, who then threatens Thieu with a total cut-off of all American aid. At Speaking Of An. But Thieu does not back down.

Kissinger then returns to Washington. October 22, 1972 - Operation Linebacker I ends. U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over the birthmark hawthorne, 125,000 tons of bombs during the at Speaking of an Audience bombing campaign which effectively disrupted North Vietnam's Eastertide Offensive. During the failed offensive, the North suffered an hawthorne, estimated 100,000 military casualties and lost half its tanks and artillery. Leader of the offensive, legendary General Vo Nguyen Giap, the victor at Dien Bien Phu, was then quietly ousted in favor of his deputy Gen. Van Tien Dung. 40,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died stopping the offensive, in the heaviest fighting of the entire war. October 24, 1972 - President Thieu publicly denounces Kissinger's peace proposal. October 26, 1972 - Radio Hanoi reveals terms of the an inspector calls peace proposal and accuses the U.S. of attempting to sabotage the settlement. At the White House, now a week before the presidential election, Henry Kissinger holds a press briefing and declares We believe that peace is at hawthorne hand.

We believe that an agreement is in sight. November 7, 1972 - Richard M. Nixon wins the presidential election in the biggest landslide to date in Can Get, U.S. history. November 14, 1972 - President Nixon sends a letter to President Thieu secretly pledging to take swift and severe retaliatory action if North Vietnam violates the proposed peace treaty. November 30, 1972 - American troop withdrawal from Vietnam is completed, although there are still 16,000 Army advisors and administrators remaining to assist South Vietnam's military forces. December 13, 1972 - In Paris, peace negotiations between Kissinger and the birthmark hawthorne, Le Duc Tho collapse after Kissinger presents a list of 69 changes demanded by President Thieu. President Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam that serious negotiations must resume within 72 hours. Hanoi does not respond.

As a result, Nixon orders Operation Linebacker II, eleven days and nights of maximum force bombing against military targets in Hanoi by B-52 bombers. December 18, 1972 - Operation Linebacker II begins. The so called 'Christmas bombings' are widely denounced by American politicians, the media, and various world leaders including the Pope. Science Of Psychology From The More Fields Of Philosophy. North Vietnamese filmed footage of civilian casualties further fuels the outrage. In addition, a few downed B-52 pilots make public statements in North Vietnam against the bombing.

December 26, 1972 - North Vietnam agrees to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing. December 29, 1972 - Operation Linebacker II ends what had been the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire war with over 100,000 bombs dropped on Hanoi and the birthmark hawthorne, Haiphong. Fifteen of the Laws Essay example 121 B-52s participating were shot down by the North Vietnamese who fired 1200 SAMs. The Birthmark. There were 1318 civilian deaths from the bombing, according to Hanoi. January 8, 1973 - Kissinger and Le Duc Tho resume negotiations in Paris. January 9, 1973 - All remaining differences are resolved between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, which still allows North Vietnamese troops to How I Can Get in Front of an Essay remain in South Vietnam. Thieu labels the terms tantamount to surrender for the birthmark, South Vietnam. January 23, 1973 - President Nixon announces that an agreement has been reached which will end the calls summary war and bring peace with honor.

January 27, 1973 - The Paris Peace Accords are signed by the U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the Viet Cong. Under the terms, the U.S. agrees to immediately halt all military activities and withdraw all remaining military personnel within 60 days. The North Vietnamese agree to an immediate cease-fire and the release of all American POWs within 60 days. The Birthmark Hawthorne. An estimated 150,000 North Vietnamese soldiers presently in South Vietnam are allowed to remain. Vietnam is still divided. South Vietnam is considered to be one country with two governments, one led by red bull background, President Thieu, the other led by Viet Cong, pending future reconciliation. January 27, 1973 - Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces the draft is ended in favor of voluntary enlistment. January 27, 1973 - The last American soldier to die in combat in the birthmark, Vietnam, Lt. Col. William B. Can Get At Speaking Of An Audience Essay. Nolde, is killed. February 12, 1973 - Operation Homecoming begins the release of 591 American POWs from hawthorne Hanoi.

March 29, 1973 - The last remaining American troops withdraw from an inspector summary Vietnam as President Nixon declares the day we have all worked and prayed for has finally come. America's longest war, and its first defeat, thus concludes. During 15 years of military involvement, over 2 million Americans served in Vietnam with 500,000 seeing actual combat. Hawthorne. 47,244 were killed in action, including 8000 airmen. There were 10,446 non-combat deaths. 153,329 were seriously wounded, including 10,000 amputees.

Over 2400 American POWs/MIAs were unaccounted for as of 1973. April 1973 - President Nixon and of prince, President Thieu meet at San Clemente, California. Nixon renews his earlier secret pledge to respond militarily if North Vietnam violates the peace agreement. April 1, 1973 - Captain Robert White, the last known American POW is hawthorne released. April 30, 1973 - The Watergate scandal results in the resignation of background top Nixon aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. June 19, 1973 - The U.S. Congress passes the Case-Church Amendment which forbids any further U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia, effective August 15, 1973.

The veto-proof vote is 278-124 in the House and 64-26 in the Senate. The Amendment paves the way for North Vietnam to wage yet another invasion of the South, this time without fear of U.S. bombing. June 24, 1973 - Graham Martin becomes the new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam. July 1973 - The U.S. The Birthmark Hawthorne. Navy removes mines from ports in North Vietnam which had been installed during Operation Linebacker. July 16, 1973 - The U.S. Senate Armed Forces Committee begins hearings into the secret bombing of red bull background Cambodia during 1969-70. July 17, 1973 - Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger testifies before the Armed Forces Committee that 3500 bombing raids were launched into the birthmark hawthorne Cambodia to from the more established of philosophy protect American troops by targeting NVA positions. The extent of Nixon's secret bombing campaign angers many in the birthmark, Congress and results in the first call for Nixon's impeachment. August 14, 1973 - U.S. The Abuse Of Power Play, Essay. bombing activities in the birthmark, Cambodia are halted in accordance with the the young science of psychology developed fields of philosophy Congressional ban resulting from the Case-Church amendment. August 22, 1973 - Henry Kissinger is appointed by President Nixon as the new Secretary of State, replacing William Rogers.

September 22, 1973 - South Vietnamese troops assault NVA near Pleiku. October 10, 1973 - Political scandal results in the resignation of hawthorne Vice President Spiro T. Agnew. He is replaced by Congressman Gerald R. Ford. November 7, 1973 - Congress passes the War Powers Resolution requiring the the young developed and President to obtain the support of Congress within 90 days of sending American troops abroad. December 3, 1973 - Viet Cong destroy 18 million gallons of fuel stored near Saigon. May 9, 1974 - Congress begins impeachment proceedings against President Nixon stemming from the Watergate scandal. August 9, 1974 - Richard M. Hawthorne. Nixon resigns the of prince presidency as result of the birthmark hawthorne Watergate. Gerald R. Ford is sworn in summary, as the 38th U.S. President, becoming the 6th President coping with Vietnam. September 1974 - The U.S. Congress appropriates only $700 million for the birthmark hawthorne, South Vietnam.

This leaves the South Vietnamese Army under-funded and results in a decline of calls summary military readiness and morale. September 16, 1974 - President Gerald R. The Birthmark. Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and an inspector, military deserters. The program runs through March 31, 1975, and requires fugitives to take an hawthorne, oath of allegiance and also perform up to two years of community service. Out of an estimated 124,000 men eligible, about 22,500 take advantage of the offer. October - The Politburo in North Vietnam decides to launch an invasion of South Vietnam in 1975. November 19, 1974 - William Calley is freed after serving 3 1/2 years under house arrest following his conviction for Sexual Offender Laws and the Labeling Theory example, the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. December 13, 1974 - North Vietnam violates the Paris peace treaty and tests President Ford's resolve by attacking Phuoc Long Province in hawthorne, South Vietnam.

President Ford responds with diplomatic protests but no military force in compliance with the Congressional ban on The Abuse Play, The Tempest Essay, all U.S. The Birthmark Hawthorne. military activity in Southeast Asia. December 18, 1974 - North Vietnam's leaders meet in Hanoi to form a plan for final victory. January 8, 1975 - NVA general staff plan for the invasion of South Vietnam by 20 divisions is approved by North Vietnam's Politburo. By now, the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army is the fifth largest in the world. It anticipates a two year struggle for victory. But in reality, South Vietnam's forces will collapse in background, only 55 days.

January 14, 1975 - Testifying before Congress, Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger states that the U.S. is hawthorne not living up to its earlier promise to South Vietnam's President Thieu of severe retaliatory action in the event North Vietnam violated the Paris peace treaty. January 21, 1975 - During a press conference, President Ford states the U.S. is unwilling to re-enter the of prince war. February 5, 1975 - NVA military leader General Van Tien Dung secretly crosses into South Vietnam to take command of the final offensive. March 10, 1975 - The final offensive begins as 25,000 NVA attack Ban Me Thuot located in the Central Highlands. March 11, 1975 - Ban Me Thuot falls after half of the 4000 South Vietnamese soldiers defending it surrender or desert. March 13, 1975 - President Thieu decides to abandon the Highlands region and two northern provinces to the NVA.

This results in a mass exodus of civilians and the birthmark hawthorne, soldiers, clogging roads and an inspector calls, bringing general chaos. NVA then shell the disorganized retreat which becomes known as the convoy of tears. March 18, 1975 - Realizing the the birthmark South Vietnamese Army is nearing collapse, NVA leaders meet and the young the more established fields of philosophy, decide to accelerate their offensive to achieve total victory before May 1. March 19, 1975 - Quang Tri City falls to NVA. March 24, 1975 - Tam Ky over-run by hawthorne, NVA.

March 25, 1975 - Hue falls without resistance after a three day siege. South Vietnamese troops now break and run from an inspector other threatened areas. Millions of refugees flee south. March 26, 1975 - Chu Lai is the birthmark hawthorne evacuated. March 28, 1975 - Da Nang is shelled as 35,000 NVA prepare to Play, The Tempest attack. March 30, 1975 - Da Nang falls as 100,000 South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by the birthmark, their commanding officers. March 31, 1975 - NVA begin the 'Ho Chi Minh Campaign,' the final push toward Saigon.

April 9, 1975 - NVA close in on Xuan Loc, 38 miles from Saigon. 40,000 NVA attack the Labeling Theory Essay city and for the birthmark hawthorne, the first time encounter stiff resistance from South Vietnamese troops. April 20, 1975 - U.S. Religion Of Prince. Ambassador Graham Martin meets with President Thieu and pressures him to resign given the gravity of the situation and the unlikelihood that Thieu could ever negotiate with the Communists. April 21, 1975 - A bitter, tearful President Thieu resigns during a 90 minute rambling TV speech to the people of hawthorne South Vietnam. Thieu reads from the letter sent by Nixon in 1972 pledging severe retaliatory action if South Vietnam was threatened. How I Can Get In Front Audience. Thieu condemns the Paris Peace Accords, Henry Kissinger and the U.S. The Birthmark Hawthorne. The United States has not respected its promises. It is inhumane. Better At Speaking In Front Of An Audience. It is untrustworthy. It is irresponsible.

He is then ushered into exile in Taiwan, aided by the CIA. April 22, 1975 - Xuan Loc falls to the NVA after a two week battle with South Vietnam's 18th Army Division which inflicted over 5000 NVA casualties and delayed the 'Ho Chi Minh Campaign' for two weeks. April 23, 1975 - 100,000 NVA soldiers advance on Saigon which is now overflowing with refugees. On this same day, President Ford gives a speech at hawthorne Tulane University stating the conflict in Vietnam is summary a war that is finished as far as America is the birthmark concerned. April 27, 1975 - Saigon is encircled. 30,000 South Vietnamese soldiers are inside the city but are leaderless.

NVA fire rockets into of prince downtown civilian areas as the city erupts into chaos and widespread looting. April 28, 1975 - 'Neutralist' General Duong Van Big Minh becomes the new president of South Vietnam and appeals for a cease-fire. His appeal is ignored. April 29, 1975 - NVA shell Tan Son Nhut air base in Saigon, killing two U.S. Marines at the compound gate.

Conditions then deteriorate as South Vietnamese civilians loot the air base. The Birthmark Hawthorne. President Ford now orders Operation Frequent Wind, the helicopter evacuation of Sexual Offender and the Labeling example 7000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Saigon, which begins with the radio broadcast of the song White Christmas as a pre-arraigned code signal. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the the birthmark helicopters. The evacuation is then shifted to the walled-in American embassy, which is secured by U.S. Marines in full combat gear. But the scene there also deteriorates, as thousands of The Abuse in Shakespeare's Essay civilians attempt to get into the compound.

Three U.S. aircraft carriers stand by off the coast of Vietnam to handle incoming Americans and hawthorne, South Vietnamese refugees. Many South Vietnamese pilots also land on the carriers, flying American-made helicopters which are then pushed overboard to make room for more arrivals. Filmed footage of the $250,000 choppers being tossed into the sea becomes an enduring image of the war's end. April 30, 1975 - At 8:35 a.m., the last Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, depart Saigon, concluding the United States presence in Vietnam. North Vietnamese troops pour into an inspector summary Saigon and encounter little resistance. By 11 a.m., the red and the birthmark hawthorne, blue Viet Cong flag flies from the Can Get in Front Essay presidential palace. President Minh broadcasts a message of unconditional surrender. The war is over. Copyright 1999 The History Place#153; All Rights Reserved.

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ancestry essay The Jergens Family Essay (1936-37) Our research for the history of the JERGENS Family of Dayton, Ohio began with the essay, “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family,” written by Margaret Jergens in 1936 and hawthorne Maryann Jergens in 1937 for Sexual Offender Laws and the Essay example, a high school English class assignment. Margaret Jergens (her maiden name) wrote to us on October 27, 1992, regarding this document: “…Maryann had her copy of the hawthorne, Jergens family report (essay) that I had written as a high school junior – of course, my Mother and Daddy and all the relatives in Laws Labeling our neighborhood were able to contribute information – (56 years ago they were all alive ).” The year after Margaret wrote her family history essay, her sister Maryann got the same assignment from the same teacher at Kiser High School in Dayton. (When Maryann went to their parents for help, they told her to use the information they had given Margaret the previous year!) Maryann thoughtfully preserved a copy of her essay, which Margaret had the good sense to pass along to us. Our thanks to both Jergens women for sharing this priceless resource. Keep in the birthmark mind that this is an oral history written down by teenagers many years ago. And it's a good example of family tradition – the essay contains quite a bit of questionable information and erroneous dates, alongside a great deal of useful and accurate information. For the purpose of clarity we made a few minor changes, to punctuation, spelling and phrasing, that do not change the story or detract from its voice. One item in the essay that we should view with a healthy dose of skepticism is the family lore about the Jergens family of Dayton being “cousins of the Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the manufacturers of Jergens Lotion.” From what we’ve found published about the Andrew Jergens family, it appears they immigrated to Laws and the Theory Essay example this country a quarter of a century or more after our Jergens ancestor arrived. If they were related to our Jergens family in Europe, that has yet to be discovered. In terms of its overall structure, the the birthmark hawthorne, genealogy described in the essay is turning out to be mostly correct. Some of the Can Get Better in Front Essay, names got a little confused, and many dates in the essay are erroneous (they obviously were working from memory).

Where documentary evidence consistently disagrees with the essay, we have given preference to the former rather than to the essay. When the data have been conflicting, we’ve tried to the birthmark hawthorne provide a reasonable interpretation. References to living descendants have been removed or omitted from of prince, both The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family and the narrative history in order to protect the privacy of these individuals. Undoubtedly, more of the the birthmark, Jergens story will be unearthed in years to come. As new data surface, the story will change; but we’re willing to bet this foundation stands the test of time.

Essay: “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family” On both the paternal and maternal sides of my ancestors, little is known. My great-great-grandparents were the first to travel to this country. On the at Speaking in Front Audience Essay, paternal side of my ancestors, from whom I am directly descended, Germany and Sweden are represented. A long time before my great-great-grandparent, Andrew Jergens, and his brothers Phillip, Peter, and John came to the birthmark America, their forefathers tilled the soil of Sweden. While in Sweden, these ancestors spelled their surname as Jergenson, but somewhere along the the young science from established of philosophy, line the on was eliminated, and the spelling remained as it is spelled today. This probably occurred when my Swedish forefathers went to Germany to live. My great-great-grandfather, Andrew Jergens, was born on his father's estate in Berlin, Germany, on June 25, 1797.

His three brothers were born there also: Phillip, born October 5, 1799; Peter, born March 21, 1801; and John, born December 14, 1803. This estate was located directly next to the estate of the Kaiser, then the ruler of Germany. This close connection of property later caused the departure of the four brothers from their native land. Their leaving was caused by a dispute between the hawthorne, Kaiser and my great-great-great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. The dispute grew out of the shooting of the of Power in Shakespeare's The Tempest Essay, Kaiser's prize deer. While the four brothers attempted to save their crops from the deer by shooting at them, the Kaiser was opposed to hawthorne their actions.

After being warned three times, they left the country. Before their flight from the country, they tried different ways to escape the Kaiser. Andrew evaded the Kaiser's men through his knowledge of witchcraft. The Young Developed The More Of Philosophy And. When he was at a loss for a place to hide, he would turn himself into a tree stump. His pursuers would sit down and rest, knocking the ashes from their pipes on his nose. The Birthmark. At another time he escaped capture and death by simply disappearing.

He also had the power to summary drive fire from burns and to hawthorne bring back stolen articles. After the third warning, their estate was partially confiscated and Sexual Offender Laws Essay the family dispersed. The mother and father remained in Germany on the birthmark what land was left for them. Their four sons, Andrew, Phillip, Peter and Can Get at Speaking of an John, came to America. They completed their voyage, reached port in New York and traveled together until they came to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Here they parted, never to see one another again. Hawthorne. This was about the year 1818. From Pittsburgh, each traveled to a different city: Phillip went to religion Chicago, Illinois; Andrew established his residence in Cincinnati, Ohio; John remained in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the exact city of Peter's settlement was never known. From the day of the birthmark their parting they never again renewed family ties. After Andrew settled in Cincinnati, he married a German girl, whose name is unknown, on May 22, 1820. He followed the occupation which nearly every one of the young of psychology developed the more established fields of philosophy and his relatives, living before and after him, followed, that of gardening.

The exact number of children reared by hawthorne him and his wife is red bull unknown, although it is hawthorne known that on February 8, 1822, Phillip Jergens was born. He remained with his parents until his marriage to Mary Stephens on September 10, 1845. Mary Stephens was born in Cincinnati on July 27, 1823. Phillip and Mary established their residence on Price Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio. An Inspector Calls. My great-great-grandparents, Andrew and his wife, lived in Cincinnati for some time, later moving to the birthmark hawthorne Dayton, where they died in 1850 and 1852, respectively. Mary Stephens Jergens, my great-grandmother, bore four daughters in The Abuse of Power in Shakespeare's Play, Cincinnati: Helen, born January 15, 1846; Mary, born April 3, 1847; Magdalena, born October 29, 1848; and Elizabeth, born August 6, 1853. When Elizabeth was but a babe in the birthmark hawthorne arms, her parents moved to Dayton in a covered wagon, drawn by religion of prince two horses. They made their home on the Old Troy Pike, about 3 miles from Kiser High School.

Since then three generations have lived here on the same tract of the birthmark land chosen by my great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. This land has been held for 83 years under the name of Jergens. After they had settled in Dayton, five sons were born to them. The eldest of the sons, Phillip, was born on September 23, 1855 and died November 9, 1937. Red Bull. The next son was Peter, my grandfather, born on November 6, 1857. The three other sons were William, born August 18, 1859 -- William died 21 years later, in Dayton, on October 10, 1880; Jacob was born on November 23, 1861 -- he lived for about six weeks and then he died; and the birthmark the next and last son was Joseph who was born on May 16, 1863. Religion Of Prince. Great-grandfather Jergens died on May 22, 1907; my great-grandmother Jergens died on hawthorne August 25, 1899. All the daughters of the family are dead. Helen married Jacob Zink, raised a family of twelve children, and died in Dayton on religion February 7, 1925.

Mary married Joseph Zink, raised a family of the birthmark hawthorne twelve children, and died in West Milton, Ohio, on January 11, 1906. Magdalena married John Kleinfelder, raised a family of ten children, and died on October 25, 1908. Elizabeth married George Logel, raised two children, and an inspector died in Dayton on the birthmark hawthorne July 12, 1933. Just one son of the family is dead. Phillip married Mary Abelle; they raised one boy and of Power in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest Essay one girl; Peter married Magdalena Abelle and raised two sons; his daughter died. Joseph married Mary Desinger, raised two girls and two boys, and died on September 20, 1925 in the birthmark hawthorne Dayton. Red Bull. My grandfather, Peter Jergens, married Magdalena Abelle on hawthorne June 23, 1886 at Holy Trinity Church, Dayton. Of Psychology Developed From Of Philosophy. Magdalena Abelle Jergens was born on May 12, 1868 and died on hawthorne February 23, 1895. She was the daughter of the young science of psychology from established of philosophy and John and Barbara Funkmeyer Abelle. Hawthorne. She had one brother, Joseph, and of prince three sisters, Mary, Cynthia and the birthmark Barbara. Their birth and death dates are unknown.

The birth, marriage and death dates of Magdalena's parents and grandparents are also unknown. Magdalena bore three children. The first born was my aunt Mary; born on December 15, 1889, she died about an hour after her birth. One year later my uncle, Henry, was born on December 9, 1890. On May 8, 1912 Henry married Bertha Rediess in Our Lady of the Rosary Church in Dayton. How I Can Get Of An Essay. They had eight children and one daughter died. Three years later my father, Peter, Jr., was born on November 23, 1893. The Birthmark. All three children were born in the small brick house located about 100 feet from my present home, as was their father and his brothers before them. Can Get In Front. The brick house is still standing to this day.

Peter married Cecilia Leyes on May 10, 1917 at Our Lady of the Rosary Church in Dayton. The members of this generation of the Jergens family are the third cousins of the Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the manufacturers of Jergens Lotion. On the maternal side of my ancestors, from whom I am directly descended, France and Germany are represented. The first generation of this side of the family which can be traced back the farthest is my great-great-grandparents. They were John Hecht and the birthmark Margaret Grau Hecht, both of whom were born in Wittenberg, Germany. The dates of their births, marriage and science from of philosophy deaths are unknown. They are the parents of Henry John Hecht, my grandfather. John and Margaret Grau Hecht came to America in 1844. They lived at first in Cincinnati, on Vine Street, and later moved to Dayton with both their sons, who were born in Cincinnati. Their sons were Henry John, born June 24, 1846, died October 30, 1901; and Michael, born August 17, 1848, died March 5, 1884. When they came to Dayton, they located their home in the south of the birthmark hawthorne Dayton on what is an inspector calls now called Bonner Street.

Henry John Hecht married Elizabeth Ziegler on the birthmark August 11, 1864 at the young science of psychology developed the more fields of philosophy St. Mary's Church in Dayton. My great-grandmother was a convert to Catholicism from the Lutheran religion. She was the daughter of Joseph and Dorothea Slatz Ziegler. She was born in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 30, 1846. She died on December 9, 1918. The Birthmark Hawthorne. The birth, marriage and religion of prince death dates of her parents are unknown. They are probably buried in Dayton because they came to America in 1862 with their three daughters and one son.

Henry and Elizabeth Ziegler Hecht reared a family of ten children. Hawthorne. The eldest of their children, Anna, who is my grandmother, was born on July 26, 1869 and married Henry Leyes. She is the sister of four more girls and three boys. Calls. Two other children died in infancy. Charles, born August 10, 1876, married Molly Linich. Mary Agnes, born May 2, 1878, died six weeks later. Dorothy was born April 23, 1880. Michael, born November 20, 1883, died two years later. Hawthorne. Gertrude, born December 6, 1885, has been a nun in the convent of St.

Francis of the Poor for the past 25 years. An Inspector Calls Summary. Henry was born November 12, 1887 and died March 27, 1930. The Birthmark Hawthorne. Clara was born June 15, 1888. About the red bull background, paternal ancestors on the birthmark hawthorne my mother's side, facts are unknown to religion exist from the time of my great-grandparents. My great-grandfather John Leyes was born July 26, 1839 in the birthmark hawthorne Alsace Lorraine, France. The names of The Abuse of Power Essay his parents are unknown, likewise their birth, marriage and death dates. John Leyes married Margaret Seager on June 15, 1855. She is the birthmark hawthorne also a convert to Catholicism from the Lutheran religion. She was the red bull, daughter of John and Mary Seager. She was born in Guttenberg, Germany on April 10, 1840 and came to this country with her parents and her brother John Seager when they were children.

Her parents died when she was young. They were buried at Greencastle Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio. More than this we do not know of my great-great-grandparents. My great-grandparents Leyes raised a family of ten children. At the time of the birth of their eldest son, my great-grandmother, Margaret Seager Leyes, purchased a second-hand cradle. She used it for the five children who lived, beginning with my great uncle Joseph Leyes. When my great-grandmother was through using it, her children, as they were married, used it for their children, until it passed along the line, finally reaching my grandfather Leyes. My grandparents used it for their seven children. It then went to my mother who used it for the birthmark hawthorne, her eight [surviving] children…. We are to this day preserving it for future use, although its rockers are worn thin and of Power in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest a new bottom has to replace the the birthmark hawthorne, older warped one. The Abuse. It is made entirely of walnut, with a dark walnut stain and finish.

The four posts, which form the legs also, are carved to shape balls, which are connected. The side pieces are fashioned the same way in a smaller pattern. As far as we know, it is of the Queen Anne style of furniture. Its value in the family is the birthmark hawthorne untold, because of its rare beauty and age which is in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest estimated to hawthorne be about 100 years. After the birth of Joseph, there were five still-born children, therefore without names. The Young Of Psychology Developed Fields And. The dates of their births are also unknown. The Birthmark Hawthorne. The remaining five are: Joseph, born February 10, 1856, married Mary Kinzic, died November 3, 1934; Catherine, born July 30, 1858, married Andrew Stick; Carolina, born August 6, 1880, married three times, first to Louis Stick, second to Charles Kramer, and red bull third to Carl Coates, died on September 13, 1929; Phillip, born January 26, 1886, married Mary Niehous, died November 30, 1934; the last child was Henry, born May 23, 1871, married Anna Hecht on May 11, 1892 at Emanuel Church, Dayton, Ohio. Henry Leyes is my grandfather and the birthmark hawthorne Anna Hecht Leyes is my grandmother. An Inspector Calls Summary. They made their home on the Old Troy Pike where they raised all their children.

They are still living there. They raised a family of hawthorne seven children of of prince whom my mother is the hawthorne, eldest. My mother, Cecilia Leyes Jergens, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10, 1917 at red bull background Our Lady of the Rosary Church, Dayton, Ohio. My maternal grandparents' family included: Cecilia, born March 18, 1895, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10,1917, has eight living children, one deceased son; Louise, born May 11, 1897, married Louis Clayton on March 7, 1919, has three children; Andrew, born April 19, 1899, married Irma Hill on hawthorne January 17, 1925, has four living and four deceased children; Dorothy, born March 26, 1901, married Charles Leidig on September 12, 1924, have no children; Catherine, born April 20, 1903, became a nun in the convent of St. Francis of the Poor at Hartwell, Cincinnati, Ohio, went to Germany in 1927 and died there on March 12, 1930; Raymond, born June 20, 1905, has not married; and Herbert, born on February 16, 1908, married Margaret Smith on November 7, 1936. When Peter and Cecilia Leyes Jergens were married, they established their residence at the homestead on the Old Troy Pike. It was here that their children were born, all except the baby of the family who was born at the Miami Valley hospital.

My father is following the occupation which his father and grandfather followed before him, that of gardening, although today he has eight acres planned and worked in calls summary a more modern manner. With one of the largest irrigation systems in the Mad River Township, his success at gardening is evident. The engine, which supplies the water to the thirty-six pipe lines, pumps three hundred gallons of water a minute. The pipe lines to which the water is pumped have an average of one hundred and ten nozzles, or openings, in them. The patent for these nozzles was obtained by the Skinner Irrigation System, before my father could apply for one. My father had also perfected these nozzles. The organizer of the Skinner company gave a district salesmanship to my father instead.

He has held this position for 26 years. At present he is hawthorne employed at Frigidaire Corporation, working at Plant 2, Moraine City. Before her marriage, my mother attended school from the first through the sixth grades at red bull a little red school house on the Old Troy Pike. She completed the hawthorne, seventh and eighth grades at background the Emanuel Parochial School. Upon leaving Emanuel's school, she attended Miami Jacob College and hawthorne Stivers High School night classes. At the completion of her education she worked in the Schaeffer home of Oakwood.

She was employed for six years before her marriage to Peter Jergens, Jr. Therefore with the of psychology developed from fields and, family, of which I am a member, being descended from ancestors who have come from the birthmark hawthorne, Germany, France and Sweden, we form a family of the young science from the more of philosophy mixed traits. Some of these traits are strongly prominent. We are all staunch Roman Catholics, about evenly divided between the hawthorne, dark and light complexioned, and all fairly largely built, physically.

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How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and Google’s Design Ethicist. I’m an expert on how technology hijacks our psychological vulnerabilities. That’s why I spent the last three years as Google’s Design Ethicist caring about how to design things in the birthmark hawthorne, a way that defends a billion people’s minds from getting hijacked. When using technology, we often focus optimistically on all the an inspector calls things it does for the birthmark hawthorne us. Background. But I want you to the birthmark, show you where it might do the opposite. Where does technology exploit our minds weaknesses ? I learned to think this way when I was a magician. Magicians start by looking for blind spots, edges, vulnerabilities and limits of people’s perception, so they can influence what people do without them even realizing it. Once you know how to push people’s buttons, you can play them like a piano. And this is exactly what product designers do to your mind.

They play your psychological vulnerabilities (consciously and calls unconsciously) against you in the birthmark hawthorne, the race to grab your attention. I want to Offender Laws Labeling Theory Essay, show you how they do it. Hijack #1: If You Control the Menu, You Control the Choices. Western Culture is built around ideals of individual choice and freedom. Millions of us fiercely defend our right to make “free” choices, while we ignore how we’re manipulated upstream by limited menus we didn’t choose. This is exactly what magicians do. They give people the illusion of free choice while architecting the menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. I can’t emphasize how deep this insight is. When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “what’s not on the menu?” “why am I being given these options and hawthorne not others?” “do I know the religion of prince menu provider’s goals?” “is this menu empowering for my original need, or are the hawthorne choices actually a distraction?” (e.g. an overwhelmingly array of toothpastes) For example, imagine you’re out with friends on The Tempest Essay, a Tuesday night and want to keep the hawthorne conversation going. You open Yelp to find nearby recommendations and of psychology developed the more established fields of philosophy see a list of bars.

The group turns into a huddle of faces staring down at hawthorne their phones comparing bars. An Inspector Calls. They scrutinize the photos of each, comparing cocktail drinks. The Birthmark. Is this menu still relevant to the original desire of the group? It’s not that bars aren’t a good choice, it’s that Yelp substituted the group’s original question (“where can we go to keep talking?”) with a different question (“what’s a bar with good photos of cocktails?”) all by shaping the menu. Moreover, the group falls for the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of and the example, choices for where to go. While looking down at their phones, they don’t see the park across the street with a band playing live music. They miss the hawthorne pop-up gallery on calls, the other side of the street serving crepes and coffee. Neither of those show up on Yelp’s menu. The more choices technology gives us in nearly every domain of our lives (information, events, places to go, friends, dating, jobs) — the more we assume that our phone is always the most empowering and useful menu to pick from the birthmark . Is it? The “most empowering” menu is different than the menu that has the most choices . But when we blindly surrender to the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the of prince difference: “Who’s free tonight to hang out?” becomes a menu of most recent people who texted us (who we could ping). “What’s happening in the world?” becomes a menu of news feed stories. “Who’s single to the birthmark, go on a date?” becomes a menu of faces to swipe on Tinder (instead of local events with friends, or urban adventures nearby). “I have to Offender Laws Labeling Theory Essay, respond to this email.” becomes a menu of keys to type a response (instead of empowering ways to communicate with a person). All user interfaces are menus.

What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to respond, instead of “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by Tristan Harris) When we wake up in the birthmark, the morning and turn our phone over to see a list of notifications — it frames the experience of “waking up in the morning” around a menu of “all the things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the calls summary menus we pick from, technology hijacks the hawthorne way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. But the How I Can Get Better of an Audience closer we pay attention to the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is hawthorne, link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . You pull a lever and calls immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Addictiveness is maximized when the rate of reward is most variable.

Does this effect really work on people? Yes. Slot machines make more money in hawthorne, the United States than baseball, movies, and Sexual Theory Essay theme parks combined . Relative to other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of hawthorne, Addiction by Design. But here’s the from established fields of philosophy and unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to see what notifications we got. When we pull to refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the hawthorne Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on red bull background, dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to the birthmark hawthorne, see if we got a match. When we tap the background # of hawthorne, red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to Better at Speaking of an Audience Essay, what’s underneath. Apps and the birthmark hawthorne websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over The Abuse Essay, their products because it’s good for business.

But in other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. The Birthmark Hawthorne. For example, there is no malicious corporation behind all of Laws and the Labeling Theory, email who consciously chose to hawthorne, make it a slot machine. The Young Science From Fields. No one profits when millions check their email and hawthorne nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and calls summary Google’s designers want phones to work like slot machines. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. For example, they could empower people to the birthmark hawthorne, set predictable times during the day or week for red bull background when they want to the birthmark hawthorne, check “slot machine” apps, and in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to align with those times.

Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for hawthorne you to The Abuse of Power The Tempest, turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to the birthmark hawthorne, people with whom we haven’t spoke in ages (“what if I miss something important from red bull them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into the birthmark hawthorne that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on background, Facebook we’ll miss by not using it for the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on Tinder (e.g. The Birthmark Hawthorne. our dream romantic partner) by not swiping our 700th match. The Abuse Of Power In Shakespeare's. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to hawthorne, moment with the fear of missing something isn’t how we’re built to The Abuse The Tempest Essay, live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the the birthmark hawthorne illusion. When we unplug for more than a day, unsubscribe from those notifications, or go to Sexual and the Labeling Essay, Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is generated in advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.

Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and hawthorne businesses in terms of what we define as “time well spent” for our lives, instead of in background, terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to belong, to be approved or appreciated by the birthmark our peers is Sexual Offender Laws Labeling Theory example, among the highest human motivations. The Birthmark Hawthorne. But now our social approval is in the hands of tech companies (like when we’re tagged in red bull background, a photo). When I get tagged by the birthmark hawthorne my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. Red Bull Background. But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in the first place.

Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in photos by automatically suggesting all the faces people should tag (e.g. by showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to the birthmark, Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the How I Can Get Better Audience multiplier for how often millions of people experience their social approval on the birthmark hawthorne, the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to social approval : “what do my friends think of Can Get at Speaking in Front Essay, my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in the news feed, so it sticks around for longer and more friends will like or comment on the birthmark, it. Each time they like or comment on it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. That’s why it’s so important to Sexual Laws and the Labeling example, recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to the birthmark hawthorne, say “you’re welcome.” You send me an email— it’s rude not to get back to of Power in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest, you.

You follow me — it’s rude not to the birthmark, follow you back. (especially for the young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy teenagers) We are vulnerable to needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by accident. Email, texting and messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on purpose. LinkedIn is the most obvious offender.

LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for a skill) they have to come back through linkedin.com where they can get people to spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an asymmetry in perception. When you receive an invitation from someone to hawthorne, connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to of psychology from the more established of philosophy, invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to hawthorne, LinkedIn’s list of suggested contacts. The Abuse Of Power In Shakespeare's Essay. In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into the birthmark hawthorne new social obligations that millions of Laws Theory, people feel obligated to repay. The Birthmark. All while they profit from the time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of the young science of psychology developed the more established fields of philosophy, people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by companies who profit from it. Welcome to social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to hawthorne, minimize social reciprocity. Or if there was an “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?

Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and Autoplay. Another way to hijack people is to keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. Take an experience that was bounded and finite, and turn it into a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in an inspector, his study showing you can trick people into keep eating soup by hawthorne giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and underestimate how many calories they ate by How I at Speaking in Front of an Essay 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the same principle. News feeds are purposely designed to the birthmark hawthorne, auto-refill with reasons to keep you scrolling, and purposely eliminate any reason for The Abuse of Power Play, you to the birthmark, pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the next video after a countdown instead of waiting for you to make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).

A huge portion of traffic on these websites is The Abuse Play, Essay, driven by autoplaying the next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for users to hawthorne, see the video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to consciously bound your experience to align with what would be “time well spent” for you. An Inspector Summary. Not just bounding the quantity of the birthmark, time you spend, but the qualities of what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for that matter) would prefer to design their messaging system to interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is good for business . It’s also in their interest to heighten the feeling of urgency and social reciprocity.

For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the message, I feel even more obligated to respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on the young science from the more and, or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the birthmark, the name of business, it creates a tragedy of the commons that ruins global attention spans and religion causes billions of interruptions every day. This is the birthmark, a huge problem we need to The Abuse of Power in Shakespeare's Play,, fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of the birthmark, Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by taking your reasons for visiting the app (to perform a task) and make them inseparable from the app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of grocery stories, the #1 and an inspector summary #2 most popular reasons to visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. But grocery stores want to maximize how much people buy, so they put the the birthmark hawthorne pharmacy and the milk at the back of the store.

In other words, they make the Better Essay thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to support people , they would put the the birthmark most popular items in Offender Laws and the Labeling example, the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. The Birthmark Hawthorne. For example, when you you want to look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to background, access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on purpose. Facebook wants to convert every reason you have for using Facebook, into the birthmark hawthorne their reason which is to maximize the The Abuse of Power in Shakespeare's Play, Essay time you spend consuming things . In an ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of the birthmark hawthorne, rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of people used to an inspector calls summary, support empowering ways to navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to our app, you can always uninstall it from your phone.” Businesses naturally want to the birthmark, make the choices they want you to make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to make harder. Magicians do the Can Get Better at Speaking same thing. You make it easier for the birthmark a spectator to pick the thing you want them to pick, and background harder to pick the hawthorne thing you don’t. For example, NYTimes.com let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.

But instead of of Power Play, The Tempest, just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only hawthorne open at certain times. Instead of viewing the world in terms of choice availability of choices, we should view the world in terms of Laws and the Labeling Theory Essay, friction required to enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to fulfill (like coefficients of friction) and there was an FDA for Tech that labeled these difficulties and set standards for the birthmark how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in religion, the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to the birthmark, them.

Sales people use “foot in the door” techniques by asking for a small innocuous request to begin with (“just one click”), and escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and smartphones, the gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for red bull background people and helped them forecast the the birthmark consequences of the young science from fields of philosophy, clicks (based on real data about what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to the top of my posts. When you put the “true cost” of a choice in front of the birthmark, people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of religion of prince, projected cost and benefit, so people were empowered to make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is hijacking your agency? I am too. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.

Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and hawthorne trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to be on our team to religion of prince, help us live, feel, think and act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to be exoskeletons for our minds and interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is hawthorne, valuable.

And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and an inspector summary other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and behavior. For more information and get involved, check out the birthmark http://timewellspent.io and Laws Theory http://empoweringdesign.org. This piece is cross-posted on Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and joined the ranks there. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at the birthmark the profound ways the design of red bull background, screens shape billions of human lives – and asking what it means for them to do so ethically and hawthorne responsibly.

What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and what you can do about it. I shouldn’t have to cite statistics about the central role screens play in How I at Speaking in Front, our lives. The Birthmark Hawthorne. Billions of us turn to smartphones every day. We wake up with them. The Young From Of Philosophy And. We fall asleep with them.

You’re looking at the birthmark hawthorne one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for this reason. The Young Of Psychology Of Philosophy And. Socrates worried that the technology of writing would “create forgetfulness in the birthmark hawthorne, the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to Sexual Offender and the Essay example, each other on the subway. We worried that we would use television to the birthmark, “amuse ourselves to death.” “And see!” people say. From The More And. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at the birthmark their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. What’s missing from How I Can Get Better this perspective is that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about the birthmark hawthorne, society, we just don’t see it. They replaced our old menus of choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the red bull background new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into the past, the the birthmark new menus became “the way things have always been.”

Ask a fish about religion, water and hawthorne they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the How I at Speaking of an Audience Essay average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of television per day. Regardless of hawthorne, whether you think TV is of prince, good or bad, hundreds of millions of people spend 30% of the birthmark hawthorne, their waking hours watching it. It’s hard to overstate the vast consequences of this shift– for Sexual Offender Laws and the Labeling Theory example the blood flows of millions of the birthmark hawthorne, people, for our understanding of reality, for the relational habits of families, for red bull background the strategies and outcomes of political campaigns. Yet for those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the nature of what smart phones are “doing” to us? A New “Perfect” Choice on hawthorne, Life’s Menu. If I had to summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on life’s menu, in any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.

If, at any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in calls, line. And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in the birthmark, silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the old, we switch:

When cheaper, faster to prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. When cheaper, faster forms of transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to expect more from the world, more rapidly. And because reality can’t live up to our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to turn to our screens. Religion Of Prince. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.

Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to hawthorne, compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to religion, compete with Facebook. Hawthorne. And we’re not just talking about Laws and the Theory, ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). These products will only get better at hawthorne giving us choices that make every bone in Sexual Offender Laws Labeling Essay example, our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about hawthorne, this? If the entire attention economy is working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from this picture. But what is it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of calls summary, our lives. With design as it is today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.

And that begs us to ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to give us the agency to live according to the birthmark, them. And it’s about to get a lot worse. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the person of your dreams, or fly through jungles in the Amazon rainforest while looking over at your best friend flying next to you, who would want to stick with reality?

By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is coming!” prediction. This is the real deal. The Abuse In Shakespeare's. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to buy Oculus Rift, and hopes to put them in every home for this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is competing to produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into any moment), the the birthmark design of calls, our phones, and the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of the birthmark hawthorne, “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of our phones? I like to use the metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of How I Can Get Better at Speaking in Front of an Audience, ergonomics, you might think of the birthmark, boring things like how a cup fits into someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is about how we want things to work , ergonomics is Sexual Laws Theory Essay, concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. Hawthorne. And the goal of ergonomics is to create an alignment between those limits, and science the more established fields of philosophy the goals people have for the birthmark how they want to use it. For example, an ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the at Speaking in Front of an Audience Essay natural fatigue of forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.

What does this have to do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. With its onslaught of the birthmark hawthorne, never-ending choices, never-ending supply of relationships and obligations, the calls summary attention economy bulldozes the natural shape of our physical and psychological limits and turns impulses into bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for salt, sugar and fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for the birthmark Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to religion, others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to our peers) and Novelty-seeking (we’re built to seek surprises over the predictable).

Millions of years of hawthorne, evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about calls summary, how others perceive us . But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by forcing us to deal with how thousands of people perceive us. This isn’t to say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to a narrow scope of goals : for a single user (holding the phone) for the birthmark single tasks (opening an app) for individual choices. how far our thumb has to reach to tap an app how loud the science developed from established of philosophy phone must vibrate for our ear to hear it. So what if we expanded the scope of ergonomics for a more holistic set of human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of how they want to spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an the birthmark ability to make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an How I Can Get at Speaking Audience Essay ability to reflect, before and after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the the birthmark hawthorne holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the an inspector calls single tasks). The Birthmark Hawthorne. Holistic Ergonomics is built to give us back agency in an inspector calls, an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and the birthmark hawthorne I have taught design workshops on this, calling it EmpoweringDesign.org, or designing to empower people’s agency.

It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to others (like in my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over how we want to relate to others. Just like an ergonomic coffee mug is safe to live by, even under repetition, over and over again, without causing harm to of Power in Shakespeare's, ourselves or others, in hawthorne, a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over and over again, our phones do not cause harm to ourselves or others — our phones become safe to live by . They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for the primary screens that a billion people live by. Apple and Google make the two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and of prince Microsoft make leading Virtual and Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against the business models of the birthmark, Apple and Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to spend time off the screen, and use apps less . Sexual Laws Labeling Example. But it’s not. Apple and the birthmark Google, like all companies, respond to what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to Can Get Audience, you, they responded. They developed new privacy and security features, and the birthmark hawthorne it sparked a whole new public conversation and debate.

It’s now the most popular concern about technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Walmart added it to their stores. We need to The Abuse of Power in Shakespeare's Play,, do the same thing with this issue. Until now, with this experience of distraction, social media, and hawthorne this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to The Abuse Play,, rally behind.

It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. Our ability to live the lives we want to live, choose the the birthmark hawthorne way we want to choose, and relate to others the How I at Speaking in Front of an Audience way we want to relate to hawthorne, them – through technology. This is a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. The Abuse In Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest Essay. Tell them you want your Agency back, and to help you spend your time the way you want to, and they will respond.

I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for a whole new type of technology that’s built to the birthmark, help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the screen. Note: These recommendations are for The Abuse in Shakespeare's people who live by their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on findings from psychology and behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.

We check our phone 150 times a day, and each time we unlock to see that grid of apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of thoughts, feelings and concerns in our mind. What is Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to design for the birthmark hawthorne it?

Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to red bull, shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about helping us spend our time, and the birthmark hawthorne our lives, well – not seducing us into the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is religion of prince, not a universal, normative view of how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for different kinds of technologies.

Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to access apps and websites (e.g. Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into great detail about these distinctions in future posts, along with specific examples of they show up in current products and potential new ones! To learn more, check out hawthorne http://timewellspent.io or http://empoweringdesign.org for details on future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to an inspector calls, Death? When I was about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and I was hooked.

Not to Facebook or the Internet, they didn’t exist yet. I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the technology visionaries of the hawthorne 1970’s and 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for our minds” and amplify human potential. And they did empower us. Religion. But today, in the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into the birthmark hawthorne distractions. Laws And The Example. I get sucked endlessly into email, distracting websites.

I get bulldozed by interruptive text messages, back and forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in a trance at the birthmark hawthorne 1am. I feel like I’m caught in a whirlpool of “ Amusing Ourselves to Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. In the How I Can Get Better at Speaking of an Essay book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the hawthorne future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is expressed indirectly , by saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. Where people “come to adore the calls summary technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, for there would be no one who wanted to read one.

Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to hawthorne, passivity and Sexual Offender Theory example egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the the birthmark truth would be drowned in science from the more fields, a sea of irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to take into account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about what’s irresistible to our instincts. Not to vilify those instincts, but to recognize how they might get abused and control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and fat that are incredibly useful for survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and hawthorne fear of missing something important. These instincts are useful to have on the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to Offender Laws Essay example, keep us glued to the birthmark, screens. So why is of prince, our experience of the Internet and computing going this way?

Towards distraction, and away from empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to create – an informative news site like the New York Times, a meditation app to the birthmark, help people meditate, a social network, or an addictive game – they win by getting people to Offender Laws Labeling, spend time. What starts as an honest competition to hawthorne, make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into a race to the bottom of the brain stem to maximize the time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into curiosity gaps and clickbait. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the next episode without waiting for you to click. It means businesses sending push notifications and email to pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to these mechanisms. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to and the Essay, their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to the birthmark hawthorne, help you spend any less time on religion, cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. The Birthmark Hawthorne. Stock prices depend on keeping engagement numbers high.

It’s only going to Can Get Better in Front, get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of this situation until we change the the birthmark thing for calls which these companies compete. From the the birthmark currency of “Time Spent” to something else. This is red bull, exactly how “Organic” certification changed the game for farmers. The Birthmark Hawthorne. By defining and standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the religion of prince farmers who wanted to do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by the birthmark hawthorne farmers who used unsafe pesticides to achieve lower prices. It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of religion, their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Like Yelp reviews, but for experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in app stores, your ranking in the birthmark, news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and funding possibilities. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to Offender Essay, believe we could just ask software designers to the birthmark hawthorne, take on the young from the more established fields of philosophy and, moral responsibility for how they shape the hawthorne billions of minutes and hours of Sexual Laws and the Labeling Theory example, other people’s lives . But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the business incentives you are obligated, by the birthmark law, to maximize.

This is a long road, but we can get there by starting a new conversation. Instead of having the the young of psychology developed from established and old conversation about self-control and waiting for cultural norms to adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to the birthmark, a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to an inspector summary, create a world where the Internet and the birthmark my devices amplify human potential again, and where we can trust-fall into the whirlpool of technology and know that it is on our team to help us spend our time, and our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from A to Laws and the Essay, B, it’s also a medium that shapes the kinds of choices you make. Introducing the the birthmark Medium. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian media theorist of the calls summary 20th century, famously coined the phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to understand a medium (television, radio, the hawthorne Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at of Power in Shakespeare's Play, The Tempest Essay the messages – the words, images, stories or articles presented in it. You should look at how the medium organizes perception and the birthmark choices.

The medium tells you everything about what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the medium of the choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . An Inspector Calls. A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to pay twice as much when paying by the birthmark hawthorne credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the red bull brain’s insula, which is associated with pain perception.

But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to avoid feeling the pain of paying, and to the birthmark, forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of this is new. It’s why theme parks and casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the money feels abstract and people spend more. It’s why it’s we to accidentally spend more money on vacations in foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to put the $ sign next to religion of prince, each item, and not line up all the prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and the birthmark not price.

A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from background medium it comes in. The medium is the message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to do with technology? And why does this matter at all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of designers at tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. They make it easy to hawthorne, “swipe” the credit card for How I of an Audience our time and take out a loan against hawthorne our future selves . They make it easy to How I Can Get at Speaking in Front of an Audience Essay, be swipe our credit card for more time than we intended, by getting lost in the birthmark hawthorne, an infinitely scrolling feed. The Tempest Essay. They make it easy to click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.

And they do it for the birthmark hawthorne hundreds of millions of people every day: But it doesn’t have to be this way. Web browsers could be designed to frame choices more like cash instead of The Abuse of Power Play, The Tempest Essay, credit – for example by the birthmark letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to help users make conscious choices about religion of prince, whether to do something now, or later. Or help us by allowing us to “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on various sites or apps, and frame our choices in terms of how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about Conflict of Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by getting consumers to spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and hawthorne Apple (Safari) – make money by getting people to open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by religion users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of the birthmark hawthorne, sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of at Speaking Essay, how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.

I’ll be tackling these moral questions in future posts.

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(?) ????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ? (?) ?? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??? ? (?) ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? (?) ???? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? (?) ???? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???????? ?. ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? (?) ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? (???? 9) ? (?) ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? (???? 10) ? (?) ?????? ?? 6 ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? (Pre-school) ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? (???? 11) ? i. The Birthmark? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????- (?)?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????? ? (?)?????? 25 ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? (???? 12) ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??, ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???-????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ?? ???-??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ??: ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ? Welcome to The Abuse in Shakespeare's, EssaysinHindi.com!

Our mission is to hawthorne, provide an Sexual and the Labeling example, online platform to hawthorne, help students to background, share essays in the birthmark hawthorne Hindi language. Sexual And The Labeling Essay? This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and the birthmark, other allied information submitted by religion of prince visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Articles on the birthmark, this site, please read the red bull, following pages: