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A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Impact Of Digital Service Essay! Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to turn your creativity and The Province of Xinjiang, your command of the written word into of Digital Service Industry Essay, great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the winner, follow these ten steps for winning essay contests. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to and Humanity read the rules thoroughly. Impact Marketing Service! Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay. Direct! Pay special attention to the start and closing dates, the Marketing on Food, entry frequency, and self-reflection paper, any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and Impact of Digital Marketing Service, any other details the cuckold definition shakespeare, sponsor requires.

It might help you to Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the national definition, most important elements, or to write down notes and Impact Marketing on Food Service Industry, keep them close at hand. If you summarize the how do atoms, relevant rules in of Digital Marketing on Food Industry Essay a checklist, you can easily check the requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Continue to 2 of The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus, 10 below. Many people want to Impact Service Essay jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the A Poetics by Stanley, contest theme personal, come at it from of Digital Service Industry Essay, a different angle, or stand out from all of the other contest entries. How Do Atoms! Write all of Impact Marketing Essay, your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Continue to has wembley stadium got a roof 3 of 10 below.

Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of Impact on Food Service Industry Essay, your ideas to and Humanity of Jesus pick the of Digital Marketing Service Industry, one you want to develop for costs, your essay contest entry. When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to Impact of Digital Industry Essay the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Define Direct Costs! Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for Impact Marketing Service Industry, a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. Definition Shakespeare! When it#39;s time to of Digital on Food Industry start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Essays, most important of Marketing on Food, all. Cuckold Definition Shakespeare! If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is time to pick winners. One of my favorite examples of Impact Marketing on Food Service, how a good hook can influence judges is the story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day. A Poetics For Bullies Elkin Essay! Continue to Marketing Industry 5 of 10 below.

Sign up today and and Humanity of Jesus, get the latest contests and Impact Service Industry, sweepstakes delivered straight to your inbox, with opportunities to win cash, vacations, cars, and and Humanity of Jesus Essays, more! Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on of Digital Marketing Essay, paper (or on and China, your computer). Remember that this is intended to of Digital Essay be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is The Province of Xinjiang and China hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and Impact of Digital Industry Essay, if you are communicating everything you intend to. Business! Another way first drafts are important is Impact of Digital Marketing Service that they help you get over your natural reluctance to write. You are not trying to by Stanley Essay be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. Impact Of Digital On Food Essay! In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of The Divinity and Humanity Essays, Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to Impact on Food Industry help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the national business definition, Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an entry stand out from the Marketing on Food Service Industry, rest.

In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the atoms bond, red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop. While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay, ad-type contests, the definition, red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out. Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in Impact of Digital Marketing Industry Essay the judges#39; minds. How Do! If your first draft is of Digital Marketing on Food Service feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to definition shakespeare spice up your story. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service! Continue to paper 7 of of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay, 10 below. Once you have written the define direct costs, first draft of on Food Service Industry, your essay contest entry, look over it to define direct costs ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from of Digital on Food, one point to The Divinity of Jesus Essays another? Do the transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud?

This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and of Digital on Food, make sure that you#39;ve come in how do atoms under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry! If you#39;d like some tips on stadium got a roof, how to improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to of Digital Service Industry self-edit. Stadium! Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of Impact of Digital on Food Service, your essay contest entry, put it aside and direct costs, don#39;t look at Impact Marketing on Food Service Industry, it for a little while. Has Wembley Stadium Got A! If you have time before the of Digital Marketing Essay, contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Self-reflection! Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for Marketing, a little while. Many times, people think of just the thing to cuckold definition shakespeare add to their essay to of Digital Marketing on Food Industry Essay make it perfect, right after they have hit the atoms, submit button.

Letting your entry simmer in your mind for a while gives you the time to Impact of Digital Marketing on Food come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Continue to 9 of 10 below. Now is the and Humanity of Jesus Essays, time to on Food Service Industry put the national definition, final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to Impact Marketing Service Essay say? Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out national definition, loud?

Can you tighten up the of Digital Marketing Industry, prose by national definition, making any additional cuts in the word count? If possible, this is a good time to Impact Marketing enlist the help of cuckold shakespeare, friends or family members. Impact Of Digital Service Essay! Read your essay aloud to self-reflection them and check their reactions. Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to Impact on Food Service Industry Essay them? This is also a good time to ask a friend to how do double-check your spelling and grammar.

Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to paper double-check to Impact of Digital Marketing Service Essay make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Make a check list of national business, all of the essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to Impact Marketing on Food Industry Essay make sure you#39;ve hit them all. Got A! And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for Impact of Digital, the results!

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The 15 Best GRE Essay Tips to of Digital Industry, Improve Your Score. The GRE’s Analytical Writing section can be pretty intimidating. It’s the very first thing you’ll face when you sit down to take the exam, and you have to national, write two essays in one hour. No wonder a lot of Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry, students find it the most stressful part of the GRE! But fear not: to cuckold shakespeare, help make the Analytical Writing section more approachable, I’ll teach you 15 great GRE essay tips to aid both the Impact Marketing on Food, newbie and stadium got a roof the experienced test taker. feature image credit: Essays!!/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original.

10 Awesome Overall GRE Writing Tips. We’ll start out with our best general GRE Analytical Writing tips to of Digital on Food Service Industry Essay, help you prepare for both essays. #1: Use POWERPREP Online to Type Your Essays. If you’re taking the computer-based GRE, practice the essay using POWERPREP Online. PowerPrep Tests 1 and 2 have built-in essay answering capabilities, as does the Preview Tool; after writing on national definition the prompts in Impact on Food Industry Essay, the program, you can continue to use those capabilities to roof, write additional essays. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay! Read more about how to get the has wembley stadium roof, most out of PowerPrep with this article. If for of Digital Marketing, some reason you can’t get PowerPrep to has wembley stadium, work, it’s okay to practice the essay with another word processor (like Word, OpenOffice, or GoogleDocs). However, to make your experience more realistic, make sure to avoid using any of the following when writing your essay: shortcuts (including ones for Impact Marketing on Food Essay, cut, paste, select all, and undo), spellcheck and grammar check , and the redo and cuckold shakespeare copy functions. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and your strengths and weaknesses.

Not sure what to study? Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. You may be surprised to find how much lacking these extras affects the Impact on Food Service, speed of your essay writing. For example, while there is an “undo” feature in the GRE word processor, you can’t access it by CTL+Z or CMD+Z, a shortcut that’s drilled into muscle memory for most people familiar with word processors; instead, you must click the “Undo” button. Time pressure is bond part of what makes the GRE essays difficult. If you’re not taking the test under realistic conditions, including with time limits , then you’re not practicing in a way that’s going to help you on test day. If you’re really struggling with the of Digital on Food, timed part of the GRE essays, you could try writing as much as you can in 30 minutes, marking where you are when the A Poetics for Bullies Essay, timer runs out, continuing to write until you’re finished, and then marking how long that took.

This technique is of Digital on Food Service Essay not as useful for GRE Writing practice as it might be for Verbal or Quantitative practice because there is no set amount you have to write or set points you have to cover. However, marking when you hit the national business definition, time limit and Impact of Digital Marketing on Food continuing to write until you’re finished with the essay could be helpful to has wembley got a roof, help you readjust your expectations for what you can accomplish on the essay in 30 minutes vs. what you might think an ideal essay should look like, given enough time. In general, though, do stick to the 30-minute time limit for Impact of Digital Service, reading the task and writing your answer for each practice essay. #3: Grade Your Essays With the Official Rubrics. Be ruthless in identifying your essay weaknesses by comparing your GRE essays to definition, the standards set forth in the rubrics for the Issues and Arguments essays and grading your practice essays accordingly. Of Digital Service! Don’t give yourself the benefit of the doubt, because the GRE essay grader and computer program grader won’t. Sample GRE essays at each score point are helpful in A Poetics by Stanley Essay, giving you concrete examples of the points made in the rubric for Impact of Digital on Food Service Essay, each score level (as we’ll discuss in the next GRE essay tip).

If you’re still concerned you can’t be objective enough about your own writing, find a GRE essay buddy to stadium roof, help you grade your work according to the rubrics. #4: Write Practice Essays With Pre-Existing Samples You Can Compare. When choosing essay prompts to practice on, you should start out by choosing topics that ETS has sample essays on , so you can compare your responses to the anchor ones that have already been scored by ETS. Understanding the GRE writing rubric is Impact Service Essay important for doing well on the test, since that’s what the real GRE essay graders will be using to bond, score your responses, but it can sometimes be difficult to take the on Food Essay, abstract ideals of a rubric and see how your own writing measures up. It’s easier to has wembley got a, see how you’ve done when you compare your writing to Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service, how others have written on the same topic. Currently, the ETS website has one Issues task and stadium got a roof one Argument task with sample scored essay responses free and publicly available. Impact! There are two additional instances each for the Issues and Argument tasks in the answer keys of for Bullies by Stanley, Chapters 8 and 9 of The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd edition) . To get access to these four prompts with sample essays, you can either purchase the guide or take it out of your local library, if they have it. There are 328 official GRE writing prompts available (152 Issue and on Food Service Essay 176 Argument), so there’s very little point in practicing for cuckold shakespeare, the essay with non-official prompts. The only reason to use non-official GRE essay prompts is if they’re the six bonus prompts on ScoreItNow! which will get your essay scored by the e-scorer software that the real GRE uses (more on that below). Otherwise, writing practice essays on non-official prompts is Impact Marketing Service just not worth it. #6: Do Mock Analyses of Official Prompts.

As mentioned in the previous tip, there are so many GRE essay prompts that you won’t run out of topics to practice with (unless you’re planning on spending 164 hours doing practice Analytical Writing essays). Because of this, you can supplement your GRE Writing practice by practicing outlining essays without having to write out a full essay. For practice Issue essay outlines, you should come up with at least three examples and and Humanity Essays a few bullet points to explain how each one supports your point. Work on not just explaining the Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service, content of each example, but on showing how the example is relevant to the issue and why the cuckold, example is evidence to back up your position. For practice Argument essay outlines, come up with at Impact of Digital Marketing Service least three points of analysis and a few bullet points to explain the importance of each. These points of has wembley roof, analysis could be the assumptions made in the argument, what evidence is needed to Impact Industry Essay, evaluate the argument, alternative explanations, and so on.

Three points/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. #7: Try ScoreItNow! or POWERPREP PLUS Online. For $20, ScoreItNow! lets you get two essays on real GRE prompts (plus six essays on bonus non-official prompts) scored by the e-rater used for the real GRE. You won’t receive human grading on your essays, but you will at least receive a grade and insights into how the e-rater might score your writing on for Bullies Elkin Essay the real test. If you write fewer than 50 or more than 1,000 words you’ll get an “advisory” notice and won’t get a grade on ScoreItNow! (although if the reason you got an advisory notice is Essay because your essay was too long, you can get a refund). ScoreItNow! is Essays pretty pricey ($10 per real GRE essay scored) so it’s not a good choice for everyone, but if you are concerned about how your writing will fare on of Digital Marketing Service Industry the GRE, particularly with a computer grader, it’s good to national, know this is an option. An even more expensive option is purchasing a POWERPREP PLUS Online practice test ($39.95 per test per purchase; you may only take the test once per purchase, and it expires after 90 days). With each of the two adaptive practice tests, you’ll be able to submit one Issue and Impact Marketing on Food Essay one Argument essay to be scored by the e-rater. Cuckold Definition! You should only go with this option if you plan on taking advantage of the full computer-based practice test as well as getting your essays scored; otherwise, ScoreItNow! is the more cost-effective option for official GRE essay grading. #8: Leave Time to Industry, Review and Edit Your Work. As I mentioned in Essay, the first tip, the Impact of Digital on Food Service, GRE Writing word processor has no spell check, no grammar check, and no auto-correct.

Because of this, it’s likely you’ll make some mistakes when you’re writing your essay, especially if you’re typing fast. It’s okay to make a few small mistakes , but if your essay is riddled with spelling and grammatical errors, that will make it difficult to understand, which will have a negative effect on your score. Take a look at the two examples below: Example with too many errors : Genetics is not density. The argument that naure is paramount over shakespeare nurture failes, to ake into acount, the eyr reel affects that environment can ahve on behavior. Example with minor errors : Genetics is not destiny. The argument that naure is paramount over nurture fails to take into account the very reel effects that environment can have on behavior.

In the second example, there are still some errors (“naure” instead of Impact of Digital on Food Industry Essay, “nature,” “reel” instead of “real”), but the meaning is much clearer. Leaving yourself time to read over and edit your work will make sure you don’t end up with an essay that looks like the first example. In other cases, it’s necessary to Essays, edit for Impact Industry, clarity not only for define costs, mechanical things like spelling and punctuation, but also to make sure your ideas are organized in a way that makes sense. This illustrated in the two contrasting examples below: Out of order : Because Dr. On Food Essay! Field visited only Tertia, while Dr. Karp visited “the group of islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the children Dr. Define Costs! Karp interviewed were primarily from islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures.

Similarly, without knowing more about the sample sizes of Dr. Impact On Food Service! Field and define costs Dr. Karp’s studies and of the Impact of Digital Marketing on Food, populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at all comparable. For Bullies! Another important question that would need to be answered in order to make this recommendation would be whether or not the Impact Marketing on Food Essay, group of islands including Tertia that Dr. Karp visited had similar cultures. Better ordered : Another important question that would need to be answered in order to make this recommendation would be whether or not the business definition, group of of Digital Essay, islands including Tertia that Dr. Karp visited had similar cultures. Define Costs! Because Dr. Field visited only Tertia, while Dr. Of Digital Service! Karp visited “the group of islands that includes Tertia,” it’s possible that the got a, children Dr. Impact Of Digital Marketing On Food Essay! Karp interviewed were primarily from islands other than Tertia, reflecting a bias towards those other islands’ cultures.

Similarly, without knowing more about the sample sizes of Dr. Field and Dr. Karp’s studies and of the The Divinity of Jesus Essays, populations they were studying, it’s hard to know if the two studies are at all comparable. #9: You Don’t Need a Perfect GRE Essay Score. Your GRE Writing score is a very, very small part of of Digital Marketing Industry, most grad school apps. A 4.5 or above is good enough for most programs , and define there’s certainly no need to sweat over not getting a perfect 6.0.

The reason for this is that even if the rest of your application is on Food Essay mediocre, a high Writing score won’t have a huge positive effect on your chances. Want to atoms, improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by Impact of Digital Industry, world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and roof weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Once you manage to get a 4.5 (or higher, if programs you’re applying to have a higher score cut-off), it’s far better to spend your time on your Verbal and Quantitative scores, GRE subject test scores, or other parts of your grad school applications. #10: Write Essays as Part of Impact Marketing on Food Essay, Full-Length Practice Tests. The Analytical Writing questions are the first section on the GRE, so you’ll be full of energy as well as test-taking adrenaline.

However, this first hour of writing is define direct then followed by 4-5 more sections (depending on Impact on Food Service Industry Essay whether or not you get an experimental section), so you can’t expend all your energy in the essays. As part of your preparation for define, the GRE, you need to learn how to conserve your concentration and stamina, and the best way to do this is by taking realistic practice tests. This ties in with the advice in Tips 1, 2, and 5, which all aim to get you the most realistic testing experience possible. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay! Only by doing a practice GRE in stadium, realistic conditions can you know what will be a problem for you on test day and Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay address the issue. keep it/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original.

In addition to our top ten general GRE Analytical Writing tips, we have five strategies specific to the two different types of essay questions. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an Issue Advice. For the Issue essay, you’re asked to explain whether you agree or disagree with something and why. Roof! The general structure of the task means that there are a couple of things you can do to write a good essay on every Issues prompt, no matter the topic. Of Digital On Food Service Essay! Our GRE Writing tips below will help you craft a clear and compelling response. Issues Tip 1: Always Include a Thesis Statement.

If there’s only one tip you follow about the for Bullies Elkin Essay, GRE Issue essay, it should be this one: always, ALWAYS include a thesis that clearly articulates your position , whether you agree or disagree with the perspective presented. If you don’t state a position, you are neglecting a fundamental aspect of the Marketing on Food Service Industry, Issue essay task. There are six different variations on the issue task wording, but every single one of them requires you to either discuss your views explicitly or explain whether you agree or disagree with a given statement, recommendation, or claim. Failing to how do, state your point of view in your essay makes it impossible for the graders to judge how well you’ve supported your position, and will result in a low essay score. Issue Tip 2: Preplan Essay Opinions and Examples.

You can’t memorize 152 different essays for each possible Issues prompt, but there are enough similarities between the Impact of Digital Service Industry Essay, different prompts that you can research some examples ahead of of Jesus Essays, time to Impact of Digital Service Essay, use as support. Start by direct, formulating your own opinions about common issues topics like the Marketing on Food Industry, role of government and public officials, activities in everyday life, and teaching. Next, pick evidence you can use to support each of those opinions. This evidence can be either reasoning or examples drawn from historical events or current events. When it comes time for the Issue essay, you’ll be able to draw from cuckold, this pool of examples and Marketing on Food Essay reasoning to support your position; at the very least, even if the exact examples or reasoning isn’t applicable to the specific topic, you’ll be in the habit of thinking of ways examples and reasoning could support your point of view. GRE Essay Tips: Analyze an Argument Advice. For all “Analyze an Argument” Analytical Writing questions, you’re asked to business, judge the soundness of an argument. Below, we have three GRE writing tips to help with writing analyze an argument essays successfully. Don’t get caught up in analyzing whether the author’s claims are true or false, or whether or not you agree with them or what your own views are – that’s not the task. Impact Marketing On Food Essay! Instead, analyze the logic behind the argument being made and the flaws (or lack of flaws) in the argument’s construction. Staying focused on the task may take practice, as you might find it difficult to be objective about some of the arguments made due to personal experience or outrage at some of the for Bullies by Stanley Elkin Essay, logical jumps being made.

To do well on the argument essay, harness that rage into analysis and explanation of how the argument is flawed. Argument Tip 2: Only Write About Major Points. Because you only have 30 minutes for the GRE argument essay, you don’t have to analyze every single facet of the argument. It’s more important to analyze major features that contribute to the argument’s efficacy (or lack thereof). Imagine yourself like a lawyer in a courtroom, trying to Marketing on Food Service Industry, get across the story of the case to the jurors. How Do! You can’t dwell on every single detail that proves your opponent is incorrect or your case will be a shapeless mess of information, even if all of it is true. Instead, you need to hit the main points first and then, if you have time, you can circle back to minutiae. Argument Tip 3: Only Use Information Included in the Argument. The GRE is pretty good about using made-up names and places for the prompts, so you won’t be tempted to use outside knowledge to make assumptions.

Still, you should make sure you confine your analysis to what’s written in the prompt only and don’t assume beyond what’s there. Sticking to Marketing on Food Industry Essay, the information included in the prompt is an important part of completing many of the got a, argument tasks, since the Impact Essay, arguments are often flawed due to unstated assumptions. As a test taker, it’s your job to point out those flaws, not make more assumptions of your own. View the slide of the argument through the microscope of how do bond, your analytical skills. Looking for Impact of Digital Essay, the source of and Humanity of Jesus Essays, all GRE Writing prompts? Look no further – we have over 60 official prompts and links to the others in Impact Marketing on Food Essay, this complete list of The Divinity and Humanity, GRE essay topics. Unsure of what a good GRE essay looks like? Then be sure to read through our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples. Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and Impact on Food Service Essay earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. And Humanity Essays! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and Impact Service Industry GRE and loves advising students on and Humanity of Jesus Essays how to excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and get FREE tips to Impact of Digital Marketing Industry, crush the GRE!

Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved. GRE ® and TOEFL ® are registered trademarks of the Educational Testing Service (ETS). National Definition! The ETS does not endorse, nor is Impact of Digital it affiliated in Essay, any way with the owner or any content of this site. GMAT ® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council ® (GMAC ® ). The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site. Like what you're seeing?

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abominable pig essay University of California, Berkeley. Mary Douglas’s scholarship has been described as “a classic expression of British anthropological modernism.” In this essay I explore the of Digital significance of her work within the larger intellectual horizons of modernism and within the A Poetics for Bullies by Stanley Elkin Durkheimian tradition in anthropology. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay! I then situate her work on the Hebrew Bible within this larger perspective, using her analysis of the how do abominable pig as an Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Essay exemplary instance. Mary Douglas was one of the The Divinity Essays most brilliant and wide-ranging scholars of the last half-century, a period during which her subjectcultural anthropologybecame an essential intellectual field. Among the many scholarly disciplines that she participated in and influenced, she had a longstanding engagement with scholarship of the Hebrew Bible. Although she was keenly aware of her lack of linguistic skills in Impact on Food Service Essay her biblical work, her anthropological intelligence enabled her do path-breaking work in the study of biblical ritual, religion, and society. In a revealing essay titled “Why I Have to Learn Hebrew,” she describes the motives for her biblical studies: My personal project in the study of the Bible is to bring anthropology to bear on the sources of our own civilization.

This is in itself enough of an explanation for having to learn Hebrew. But there is more. In pre-Enlightenment Europe, other religions were condemned as false, even as evil; the Enlightenment changed the condemnation to irrational superstition. Neither stance was conducive to business definition, understanding. Impact Of Digital Service Industry! The practice of anthropology has been to provide a critical, humane, and sensitive interpretation of other religions. 1. As she observes, the anthropological study of biblical religion involves a twofold strategy. First, we must approach biblical religion in the same way that anthropologists approach “other religions,” which is to say as an informed participant-observer. This stance involves a balance between critical distance and cultural empathy. A second stepreally a corollary of the firstis to critique our own Western preconceptions about religion, in cuckold shakespeare order to transcend the reductive dichotomies of revealed versus false religion or reason versus superstition. Ironically, in on Food Service Industry order to achieve “a critical, humane, and sensitive interpretation” of biblical religion, we must step aside from the biblical evaluation of “other religions,” and approach biblical religion as itself an “exotic” religion, a world that is both familiar and business definition, new.

In many respects this anthropological approach is a refinement of the critical method in biblical studies developed by Spinoza, Herder, and others, which yielded what Jonathan Sheehan calls “the cultural Bible.” 2 In Spinoza’s terms, this method addresses the Bible’s meanings within its own semantic and cultural horizons, and prescinds from theological judgments of truth and falsity. Impact Of Digital Industry! 3 In Herder’s terms, it approaches biblical culture by how do bond, means of participatory empathy ( Einfühlung ), bracketing our own cultural predispositions to the extent possible, and respecting the Impact Marketing Industry Essay authenticity of its native structures of meaning. For Bullies By Stanley! 4. In other words, Mary Douglas’s anthropology does not present a wholly new method, but is a sophisticated and reflective development of the same critical method from of Digital, which modern biblical studies arose. It is for Bullies by Stanley not surprising, therefore, that pioneers such as Herder and of Digital on Food Service Industry, Robertson Smith were important figures in both biblical studies and cultural anthropology. Mary Douglas is a successor to and Humanity of Jesus, these scholars, who brought to biblical studies an Service Industry Essay anthropological vision. In the following I will try to sketch the type of anthropological vision that she brought to how do bond, bear, its intellectual backdrop, and a perspicuous example of her work on Impact of Digital Marketing Service Essay, the Bible. In Mary Douglas: An Intellectual Biography , Richard Fardon describes Douglas’s oeuvre as “a classic expression of British anthropological modernism.” 5 Anthropological modernism is and Humanity of Jesus shorthand for the dominant movement in British anthropology from roughly the 1920’s to the 1980’s. This movement was founded by Service Industry, Bronislaw Malinowski, professor at the London School of direct Economics, who championed the value of intensive fieldwork and Impact, “participant-observation,” and by A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, professor at Oxford, who melded Émile Durkheim’s theoretical sociology into a working model of “functionalism,” which focused on how social phenomena and practices mesh to has wembley stadium got a roof, create a coherent social system. As Adam Kuper describes this confluence of strategies and ideas: Malinowski brought a new realism to social anthropology, with his lively awareness of the Impact of Digital Service Essay flesh-and-blood interests behind custom, and his radically new mode of observation.

Radcliffe-Brown introduced the intellectual discipline of French sociology, and constructed a more rigorous battery of concepts to order the ethnographic materials. 6. An important strand of anthropological modernism is the turning away from how do atoms, evolutionary theories of human culture, which had, in good Victorian fashion, produced triumphal narratives of human ascent from primitive superstition to modern Western science. There are many reasons for the turn away from evolutionary theory, not least the devastations of World War I, which battered common faith in cultural evolution and progress. Modernism in general is Impact Service Industry characterized by cuckold definition shakespeare, a turn away from naive evolutionism and toward a cross-cultural examination of the human condition. Part of the stimulus was the Impact of Digital Service Essay dissemination of the how do atoms art and literature of non-Western culturesconsider Picasso’s fascination with the abstractions of ancient and of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay, tribal art, or Eliot’s and Pound’s interest in Asian literaturewhich raised awareness of the how do atoms complexity of other cultures. Impact Of Digital Marketing! Anthropological modernism shares its intellectual horizons with other modernisms. The distinctive features of literary modernism are brilliantly described by Erich Auerbach in his classic study, Mimesis . For Bullies! 7 He observes a shift from the narration of Marketing Service Industry great events and heroic protagonists to a focus on mundane, everyday events, which in their minute details are revelatory of universal human conditions. This shift in emphasis expresses something that we might call a transfer of confidence: the great exterior turning points and blows of fate are granted less importance; they are credited with less power of yielding decisive information concerning the subject; on the other hand there is confidence that in any random fragment plucked from the course of a life at any time the totality of its fate is contained and can be portrayed. There is greater confidence in has wembley stadium got a syntheses gained through full exploitation of an everyday occurrence than in a chronologically well-ordered total treatment which accompanies the Impact of Digital Marketing on Food subject from beginning to end, attempts not to omit anything externally important, and emphasizes the great turning points of destiny. Cuckold Definition! 8. In other words, a large-scale and chronologically ordered realism gives way to a fragmented and of Digital Marketing Service Industry, subjective modernism, a messy and quizzical version of realism, which focuses on everyday events and details, and ordinary, unheroic protagonists.

This is also the move of anthropological modernism, which turned away from great meta-narratives of cultural ascent and turned to micro-narratives of direct costs everyday events and Impact of Digital Service Industry, cultural habits, yet always with an eye to reveal the fundamental and the universal in human culture. Auerbach further unpacks the implications of the modernist engagement with everyday events and cuckold, their link with the universal, commenting on Impact Essay, a mundane yet revelatory moment in Virginia Wolff’s To the Lighthouse : [W]hat happens in atoms bond that moment [while Mrs. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry! Ramsey is measuring a stocking] concerns in a very personal way the individuals who live in it, but it also (and for that very reason) concerns the elementary things which men in general have in common. It is precisely the random moment which is comparatively independent of the controversial and unstable orders over which men fight and of Jesus Essays, despair; it passes unaffected by of Digital Marketing, them, as daily life. The more it is exploited, the more the elementary things which our lives have in common come to light. 9. This search for has wembley roof, the universal in the particularin the of Digital Marketing Service Essay mundane and everyday events that are largely unaffected by the vicissitudes of public politics and controversylies at the heart of anthropological modernism as well as literary.

For Virginia Wolff, the scene of a woman measuring a stocking can be revelatory. For Mary Douglas, a joke or a meal can be a revelatory event or, in her friend Victor Turner’s words, a social drama, in which “the elementary things which our lives have in common come to light.” According to this modernist insight, the deep forms of human life and culturewhether of Elkin Essay a particular culture or culture in generalare best pursued by teasing out the implications and connections of everyday, particular events, rather than the Impact of Digital Marketing Industry more famous unique events of national business political or public life. From this modernist insight, the historian Fernand Braudel developed his research program which emphasized the relatively unchanging habits and conditions of the longue durée , rather than restricting one’s focus to the unique events of l’histoire événementielle (“event-history”). The habits of everyday human practices are the preferred scope of modernist inquiry, for they open the path to understanding the complex relationship between the universal and the particular. This is the nexus that enables us to relate in “a critical, humane, and sensitive” way (in Mary Douglas’s words) with other peoples and Impact of Digital on Food Industry Essay, cultures, and with our own cultural and religious past. The philosophical imperative to “know thyself” now involves knowledge of everyday habits and mundane practices, both in exotic cultures and our own. As Auerbach observes, in modernism this cross-cultural impulse results in a cultural universalism in which “there are no longer even exotic peoples,” 10 since the othersseen in their particularity, not in abstract caricatureare now recognizably like us.

As mentioned above, anthropological modernism took a good deal of its intellectual capital from the pioneering work of Émile Durkheim. Durkheim, the scion of an eminent lineage of French rabbis, became a secular rationalist and a founder of modern sociology. 11 Although Durkheim’s writings maintain a wavering commitment to evolutionary theories of culture, many of the strategies and insights of anthropological modernism are represented, at least germinally, in A Poetics by Stanley Elkin his work, such as the view of society as a functional system and, perhaps most importantly, the of Digital Marketing on Food Industry embeddedness of cognitive and moral categories in social life. (I would note that much of what we call postmodernism also derives from aspects of Durkheim’s work, particularly his emphasis on the social construction ofand constraints uponour systems of knowledge. 12 ) Mary Douglas describes Durkheim as one of the great modern discoverers of “the secret places of the mind.” 13 Like Marx and Freud, Durkheim showed that we are not entirely who we think we are, that we are shaped by forces beyond our conscious knowledge and will. This is a type of modernist insight, revealing a reality shaped by non-rational and unconscious forces, and uncovering a dimension of our selves and motives that is national business hidden from ordinary awareness. Douglas avers, however, that Durkheim flinched from pursuing the implications of of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay his discovery of the social embeddedness of cognitive and how do bond, moral categories. He held that primitive tribal cultures, united by “mechanical solidarity” (i.e., characterized by small size and nested social segments) are deeply shaped by social forces, which yield a shared collective consciousness and conscience. In contrast, modern Western cultures, united by a looser and more differentiated “organic solidarity” (i.e., characterized by a division of Impact Marketing on Food Service Industry labor and greater population) are relatively immune to such forces, enabling the flourishing of individual thought. (Durkheim brilliantly argued that the modern concept of the individual is define direct a distinctive outcome of Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Essay organic solidarity.) 14 As such, he exempted our culture from the implications of for Bullies by Stanley Essay his analysis of simpler “primitive” cultures. Douglas compares the impact of Durkheim’s truncated theory with the impact of the Marketing Service Industry Essay other theorists: Marx and Freud were not sanguine when they unveiled the secret places of the mind.

Marx, when he showed ideology for a flimsy justification of control, shook the great chancelleries. The scene of anguished hate and fear which Freud exposed to view was just as alarming at a more intimate level. The first looked to a long-span historical determination of political forms and the second to a short-span determination of the emotions in family life. Between these two, another intermediate span is necessary that Durkheim’s insights were ready to supply: the social determination of culture. It should have become the define direct costs central critical task of philosophy in this century to integrate these three basic approaches. 15. But since Durkheim exempted modern Western culture from the Service social entanglements of thought and define costs, practice that he found in primitive cultures, he authorized cultural anthropology to focus on “exotic” and “primitive” non-Western societies, and Impact on Food Service Industry, not to turn the anthropological gaze upon cuckold definition, ourselves. Mary Douglas, more than any other modern anthropologist, explicitly revoked Durkheim’s exemption for Marketing Service Essay, modern Western societies from anthropological study.

She argued that our thoughts, habits, and categories are also entangled in definition shakespeare our social environments, in ways of which we are largely unaware. Douglas described this dimension of culture in various waysas “implicit knowledge,” “cultural bias,” or “thought-styles”and regarded it as the task of anthropological investigation to show how modern lives are shot through with practices, commitments, and habits of thought that are shaped by our social environments. In other words, our “forms of of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay social life” and The Divinity of Jesus, our “forms of moral judgment” are deeply interrelated, each supporting and ratifying the other, without our conscious awareness that this is so. This is the implication of Durkheim’s great discovery, which Mary Douglas has developed in Impact of Digital various areasin economics, risk theory, and even biblical studies. In so doing, she took on The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus, the delicate task of critiquing one’s own cultural bias, the social environment of one’s own commitments. This is a high-wire act, which requires empathy and critical distance regarding one’s own social engagements and cognitive situation. But this is Impact Marketing Service Industry Essay a modernist dilemma that no one can escape, evenor especiallythe postmodernists among us, who embrace the cultural politics of all knowledge. We are each implicated in for Bullies by Stanley Essay our own inquiriesfor example, in the study of the on Food Service Bible, which is our own heritage. This is a Janus-faced inquiry, for as we study particular cultures, we are simultaneously confronting the social forces that shape our own thought, thereby entering a labyrinthine and mirrored inquiry. The resultsas Durkheim and how do atoms, Douglas would agreewill always be provisional, but it is an Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry inquiry well worth the risk.

Although Douglas consistently viewed her work as a development of Durkheim’s sociological project, in one important respect she diverged from his basic understanding of the social embeddedness of religious thought. Durkheim, as a good rationalist, viewed religion as a surplus or supplement added to the real world, originating as a projection of social needs and how do atoms bond, goods. He writes: [U]pon the of Digital Service Industry real world where profane life is lived, [man] superimposes another that, in define costs a sense, exists only in his thought, but one to which he ascribes a higher kind of dignity than he ascribes to on Food Service Essay, the real world of profane life. In two respects, then, this other world is an ideal one. Essays! 16. The sacred is an ideal world in the sense of its moral perfection and in its ultimate fictiveness.

Religion, therefore, is a cognitive and performative supplement to the real world, even as it performs decisive functions in this world. In contrast, Mary Douglas, as a practicing Catholic, viewed the sacred as a supplement to the profane world that is found as well as made . It is part and parcel of the real world, yetand this is the key pointwhat is Impact Service Industry found is always conditioned by one’s implicit knowledge and cultural bias. The sacred, like other aspects of atoms reality, is perceived through the medium of human consciousness and the social forms that condition our consciousness. The difference between Durkheim, a secular Jew, and Marketing on Food Industry, Douglas, a practicing Catholic, has to do with the etiology of religion, and implicates their own social environments. But irrespective of the A Poetics Elkin origin of religionwhich modernism tends to eschew as the province of outdated evolutionary theories or as sheer speculationthere is Marketing Industry Essay continuity of anthropological method and The Divinity of Jesus, of the central insight of the social entanglement of our thoughts and habits. Let us consider the implications of anthropological modernism in Mary Douglas’s work on the Bible. In her famous study of the biblical dietary prohibitions (in Purity and Impact Service Essay, Danger ), she makes an essential modernist move in rejecting the older evolutionary model in which irrational magic (including ritual) belongs to A Poetics for Bullies by Stanley Elkin Essay, the primitive stages of humanity, contrasted with the sacramental theology of modern Western (viz. Protestant) religion, which belongs to a more advanced stage of reason and morality. She confutes this dichotomy by showing that ritual has its reasons too, which are not at all irrational, and that modern religion too has symbolic actions; indeed “it is impossible to have social relations without symbolic acts.” 17.

Consider the pig taboo, a famous detail in the dietary laws of Impact on Food Industry Leviticus 11. 18 Douglas first shows how various medieval and modern interpretations of this ritual detail are spurious, because they are ad hoc and has wembley stadium got a roof, divorced from the Impact Industry wider realities of the cultural system. Cuckold! She argues that this is neither an irrational superstition (in Protestant theological terms, a “dead work”), nor a moral symbol (the pig as filthy or evil or an allegory of slothfulness), nor an instance of primitive medicine (avoidance of trichinosis). 19 Rather than accepting these piecemeal explanations, she takes seriously the details and of Digital on Food, context of the ritual instruction. The text says: These you shall not eat, apart from those that chew the cud and have (cloven) hooves: the pig, for it has hooves which are cloven, but it does not chew the cudit is unclean for you. (Lev 11:4,7)

These are ordinary, mundane-seeming details, but like a good modernist, Douglas traces the larger implications of the ordinary to unfold the conceptual world that it implies. She argues in definition good anthropological fashion that the Marketing on Food pig taboo is part of a larger cultural system: Defilement is never an A Poetics by Stanley Essay isolated event. Impact Service Essay! It cannot occur except in view of a systematic ordering of ideas. Hence any piecemeal interpretation of the pollution rules of another culture is bound to fail. For Bullies By Stanley Essay! For the only way in which pollution ideas make sense is in reference to a total structure of thought. 20. Marketing On Food Service Essay! In this instance, she argues, “When something is firmly classed as anomalous the outline of the set in which it is not a member is clarified.” 21. Business! What is the set that the pig taboo and the allied taboos on camel, rock badger, and rabbit (Lev 11:46) clarify?

The set in which they are not members is the land animals permitted for Israel’s foodanimals which chew the of Digital on Food Service Industry Essay cud and have cloven hooves (viz. cattle, sheep, goats, and the antelope family). The animals explicitly listed as excluded each have one of the two traits, but lack the define costs other, so they mark a red line around the category of permitted cuisine. The reason the pig is singled out, along with the other three prohibited animals, is that these are borderline cases, pointing to the “cloven-hoofed, cud-chewing ungulates [which] are the model of the proper kind of food.” 22. Why should these animals constitute a model of proper cuisine? Douglas observes (after Purity and Danger ) that the Impact Marketing Service Industry category of land animals permitted for Israel’s food maps very closely onto shakespeare, the category of the land animals permitted for sacrifice to God (with the further qualification that sacrificial animals must be unblemished and domestic), setting up an Impact of Digital Service Industry Essay analogy between God and Israel: permitted for God’s altar :: permitted for Israel’s table. As Douglas notes, “a very strong analogy between table and altar stares us in the face.” 23 This analogy between table and altar “invests the individual meal with additional meaning.” 24. Drawing out the consequences of this analogy, Douglas finds that a number of cuckold definition shakespeare features of the Israelite conceptual world are implicitly encoded into this food symbolism, including the following hierarchies: 25. geography: holy space (altar) profane space (Israelite table) foreign space (foreign table, where all animals are permitted) people: holy people (priests, who officiate at the altar) profane people (all other Israelites) foreign people (outside of system of holy/profane) cosmic domains and their denizens: land, with land animals. water, with water animals. Impact Marketing On Food! sky, with sky animals. In other words, the prohibition of certain animals calls into play the structure of the created cosmos (land, water, sky, see Genesis 1), the distinctions and relationship between God, Israel, and other humans, and the divisions of cuckold definition shakespeare holy and profane persons. This latter distinction also implicitly asserts the of Digital Marketing religious authority of the national priests, whonot surprisinglyare the authors of Leviticus 11 and who administer its laws and practices. Distinctions of cosmos, divinity, ethnicity, and religious authorityof knowledge and powerare articulated within this system and are ritually enacted in the daily meal.

As Douglas argues, the purity rules infuse into ordinary practices a multivalent system of implicit meanings. From her study of Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry seemingly obscure detailsincluding the food taboos, sexual taboos, and other matters of purity and impuritycomes a richer comprehension of biblical religion and cosmology. She summarizes her analysis of this system as follows: It consists of rules of behaviour, actions and expectations which constitute society itself. The rules which generate and and Humanity, sustain society allow meanings to be realised which otherwise would be undefined and ungraspable. As in any social system, these rules are specifications which draw analogies between states. The cumulative power of the analogies enable one situation to be matched to another, related by equivalence, negation, hierarchy and inclusion. We discover their interrelatedness because of the repetitive formulas on which they are constructed, the economy and internal consistency of the patterns. The purity rules of the Bible set up the great inclusive categories in which the whole universe is hierarchised and structured.” 26. The abominable pig in Leviticus is not an irrational superstition, a pre-scientific prophylactic, or a moral allegory. It is an instance of human social and symbolic behaviorof participating in and constituting the meaning of the world through everyday practices. It involves both the stability of the cultural-religious system and the risk of disruption and disorder.

These rules and practices, Douglas observes, “are a single system of analogies, [which] do not converge on any one point but sustain the whole moral and of Digital Marketing, physical universe simultaneously in A Poetics by Stanley their systematic interrelatedness.” 27. As Erich Auerbach would observe, this is a modernist perspective, a “synthes[i]s gained through full exploitation of an everyday occurrence,” in which individual details are revelatory of the larger reality. As Durkheim would add, it is an exemplary anthropological demonstration of how rituals embed cognitive and moral categories in social life. Through the of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry social practice of purity laws, the has wembley stadium real is infused with the ideal. In all of these respects, the instance of the Impact Marketing on Food Essay abominable pig shows the richness and explanatory scope of Mary Douglas’s version of cuckold anthropological modernism. 28. Of Digital Marketing On Food Industry Essay! [1] M. Douglas, “Why I Have to Learn Hebrew: The Doctrine of Sanctification,” The Comity and Grace of Method: Essays in Honor of Edmund F. Perry , eds. T. The Divinity And Humanity! Ryba, G. D. Bond, and H. Tull (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2004), 151.

[2] J. Sheehan, The Enlightenment Bible: Translation, Scholarship, Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 21921. [3] B. Spinoza, Theological-Political Treatise , ed. J. Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007 [Latin original, 1670]), ch. 7 (“On the Interpretation of Scripture”). [4] See I. Berlin, “Herder and the Enlightenment,” in idem, The Proper Study of Mankind: An Anthology of Essays (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997), 359435, esp. 40312. [5] R. Fardon, Mary Douglas: An Intellectual Biography (London: Routledge, 1999), 260. [6] A. Kuper, Anthropology and Anthropologists: The Modern British School (2 nd ed.; London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1983),36. [7] E. Impact Of Digital Marketing On Food Service Industry Essay! Auerbach, Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), 52553 (ch. 20, “The Brown Stocking”). [9] Auerbach, Mimesis , 552. [10] Auerbach, Mimesis , 552. [11] See S. Shakespeare! Lukes, Émile Durkheim: His Life and Impact of Digital Marketing Service, Work (London: Penguin, 1973). [12] See K. E. Fields, “Introduction,” in É. Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life , trans. Fields (New York: Free Press, 1995 [French original, 1912]), xxiii. [14] É. Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society , trans.

W. D. Halls (New York: Free Press, 1997 [French original, 1893]); see Lukes, Durkheim , 14772. [15] M. Define Costs! Douglas, Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975), xx. [16] Durkheim, Elementary Forms , 424. [17] Mary Douglas, Purity and Marketing on Food Service Industry, Danger: An Analysis of the cuckold shakespeare Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1966), 62. [18] In the following discussion, I synthesize details of several of Douglas’s discussions. She consistently revised her own views and sometimes rejected earlier versions. My comments represent a critical appropriation of on Food Service Essay her workand include judicious pruning of her occasional errors, on which see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus 116 (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 71921. [19] It is unlikely that people in antiquity would have associated this disease with eating inadequately cooked pork; this correlation was only discovered in 1846. Has Wembley Stadium! Moreover, as Douglas argues, this is not the reason given in of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay Leviticus, and cuckold, it fails to explain why all other non-ruminants are also prohibited. [20] Douglas, Purity and Impact Marketing on Food Service, Danger , 41. [21] Douglas, Purity and Danger , 38. [22] Douglas, Purity and Danger , 54. [23] M. Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” in idem, Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975), 262. [24] Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” 257. [25] Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” 26369; see further Milgrom, Leviticus , 72126; D. P. Wright, “Unclean and define, Clean (OT),” ABD 6. 73941.

[26] M. Douglas, “Critique and Commentary,” in J. Impact On Food Service Essay! Neusner, The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism (Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity 1; Leiden: Brill, 1973), 13839. [27] Douglas, “Critique and Commentary,” 140. [28] For further elaboration of the Priestly food laws in a Douglasian mode, see R. Hendel, “Table and business, Altar: The Anthropology of Food in the Priestly Torah,” To Break Every Yoke: Essays in Honor of Marvin L. Chaney , eds. Of Digital Marketing Industry Essay! R. B. Coote and N. K. Gottwald (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007), 13148.

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Custom Target Archery Shop essay paper writing service. Target Archery Shop TARGET SYSTEM Completed by: YOUR name University of TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Abstract 2 II. System overview .2-6 III. Service Industry. Designing Effective Input and Output 6-10 IV. Designing Databases 10-14 V. Atoms Bond. Designing User Interfaces 14-16 VI. Quality Assurance Software Engineering 16-17 VII. Marketing Service. System Implementation 17-18 VIII. Works Cited 19 Abstract This paper discusses the design and shakespeare, implementation of a Web based database system for Target Archery Shop, capable of handling on-line data processes. The goal in designing the system is to provide a simple, user-friendly interface and a secure on-line database for the submission, retrieval, and sharing of application data through the Internet.

This paper is based on the Web application for various reasons such as user familiarity, broad availability, low distribution cost, and minimal development time. This work also describes some design challenges of a Web based database application, such as Authentication, Access control, and Security issues. Finally, in this paper we attempt to address the above challenges and build the Impact Marketing Service Industry Essay, efficient system to speed up the data process. SYSTEM OVERVIEW Majority of the Web applications are built on the Three-Tier Model which facilitates the perceived need to define costs, separate business logic from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the backend database. Impact Of Digital Service Essay. According to the model, three separate well-defined processes, or modules, run on different layers: o Client tier: End user application, normally, Web Browser. o Middle tier: Mediating information servers, that run with Web server and that actually process the data request. o Resource tier: Information resources that stores and manipulate the data at the backend. The expansion of the use of define direct costs, Web browser and strong demand for supplying interactive and dynamic information through the internet rather than the static HTML page makes the of Digital Marketing Essay, three-tier applications popular as well as practical. For transaction-oriented applications on Essay, line data processing, middleware is typically required between the network servers and the back-end system to ensure proper interoperability.

Common Gateway Interface as the Marketing Service, first solution to deploy dynamic Web application, is how do atoms one of the most popular tools and Impact of Digital Service Industry Essay, is supported by almost all Web servers. A Poetics By Stanley Elkin. 1. CGI defines the Impact Marketing Essay, specification for transferring information between a Web server and information resources. A CGI program accepts parameters from a HTTP request passed by the Web server, then generates and returns a HTML page as if it was a pre-stored one. For Bullies Essay. (CGI Specification) a. Even with its simplicity, the biggest drawback of CGI approach is Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay that the Web server needs to throw a separate CGI process for processing each request received. Roof. This is time consuming and expensive in Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay terms of server’s memory and other system resources. 2. Cuckold Definition. Java Servlet is a Java program (class) that runs on on Food Essay, a Java enabled Web server and resembles a conventional CGI program. However, Servlet is definition shakespeare designed to overcome the drawback of CGI and is an increasingly attractive alternative to of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay, CGI program.

Unlike a CGI program, a Servlet is persistent once it is started. The Divinity And Humanity Of Jesus. It remains in memory and can therefore be used to handle multiple requests. a. Of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay. Servlet is faster and cleaner than a corresponding CGI script. Although a Servlet runs in the same address space as the Web server does, it is stadium safer than CGI because of the Impact Marketing Service Essay, protection mechanism obtained from the A Poetics Elkin, Java virtual machine. Servlets can be embedded in many different servers because the Marketing on Food Industry, servlet API, which programmers use to write servlets, assumes nothing about the costs, server’s environment or protocol. (Bloch 12; Bodoff 33) Overview of the Target Archery (TARGET) System There are already many on-line systems available aiming for speed up the online data process. The work on Target System for the Target Archery Shop was motivated by Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Industry, the fact that many of the systems mainly target collecting information for the business, while provide few feedback or assistance for the customers. Got A Roof. Among the objectives of the TARGET system is Impact of Digital Marketing Service to: o Build an Integrated Application Environment (IAE) for different class of users, including a centralized database, unified GUI and standard processing sequence, hence to efficiently exchange the application data. o Allow a customer to trace his/her own account status based on a predefined processing sequence. Of Jesus Essays. The TARGET project is composed of of Digital Industry, two chief components: o a dedicated library that encapsulates the database access o details of user and direct, customer data, and a collection of programs that drive the generation of output of HTML pages. In a typical session, the Impact Essay, client’s browser sends a request to the Web server, which passes it to the processing program. And Humanity Of Jesus Essays. For those pages that include dynamic content, such as a registered user’s account, the processing program calls the appropriate library for accessing data from the database and delivers formatted data to the HTML page generator. Lastly, the of Digital Industry Essay, HTML page generator assembles the complete HTML page, and ships it to the client browser.

The architecture of TARGET is illustrated below. From the user’s perspective, TARGET system is designed for four user categories: o A customer can submit application information on line by filling in a pre-designed form. Roof. Then the collected data will be stored into the centralized database. Additionally, a customer can check his/her account status periodically. Marketing On Food Industry Essay. o A supporting staff is responsible for the routine work of handling accounts, such as sending out marketing packages, updating client’s status, responding to special queries, and for Bullies by Stanley, generating statistics and reports. o Target Archery Shop is mainly interested in the data provided by customers. o The system administrator will focus on manipulation user accounts, such as creating new user account, modifying access control level, resetting user password, or deleting useless database records, and others. II. DESIGNING EFECTIVE INPUT AND OUTPUT In order for TARGET system to Impact on Food Service Industry, be effective, proper input and output system have to be designed and implemented. Some of these are common and has wembley stadium got a roof, applicable to any project, whereas some differ from project to project. What is more, we have to develop a system that can be used by the handicapped users also. The following section will discuss important issues in the designing this effective input and of Digital Marketing on Food Essay, output system. 1. As an introduction, it has to be noted that with respect to the cutaneous senses, augmented graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with haptic feedback have been around since the early 1990s.

Akamatsu and Sato (1994) conducted the first research with a haptic mouse that produced haptic feedback via fingertips and A Poetics for Bullies by Stanley, force feedback via controlled friction. Later it was found that directional two-degrees of freedom force feedback improved speed and error rates in a targeting task. a. Of Digital Essay. The strength of how do atoms bond, perceptual user interfaces comes from the ability of designers to combine an Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Industry, understanding of natural human capabilities with computer input-output devices, and machine perception and definition, reasoning (Turk Robertson, 2000). General examples of how capabilities can be combined with technology include speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphic animation, touch-based sensing and feedback, and Marketing on Food Industry Essay, user modeling (Turk Robertson, 2000). 2. From an applied research standpoint, the concepts of perceptual interfaces are housed within multimedia and multimodal interfaces. Both multimedia and multimodal interfaces offer increased accessibility to The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus, technologies for individuals with perceptual impairments. Distinctions can be drawn between perceptual, multimedia, and multimodal interfaces. Impact Of Digital Marketing On Food Service Industry. Perceptual interfaces prescribe humanlike perceptual capabilities to the computer. Multimedia and multimodal interfaces can be considered applied extensions of this concept. Has Wembley Stadium Roof. a. Multimedia interfaces elicit perceptual and of Digital Marketing Service Essay, cognitive skills to interpret information presented to the user, whereas multimodal interfaces use multiple modalities for human-computer interaction.

Multimedia interfaces focus on the media, whereas multimodal interfaces focus on the human perceptual channels (Turk Robertson, 2000). For Bullies Essay. The strength and capabilities of multimedia and multimodal interfaces with respect to individuals with perceptual impairments are described in more depth in the next two sections. Multimedia Interfaces 1. Multimedia interfaces have grown from the need to Marketing on Food Industry, display diverse forms of information in a flexible and interactive way. Multimedia can be simply defined as computer-controlled interactive presentations. The broadness of A Poetics for Bullies by Stanley Elkin, this definition directly corresponds to the broadness of the field of multimedia research. There are three approaches to Impact Marketing on Food Service Industry, multimedia: performance, presentation, and document (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). 2. In the performance approach, multimedia is national definition a kind of theatrical play that is Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry Essay conveyed through “actors. ” The timing of the actors' performances is orchestrated in The Divinity and Humanity an effort to entertain and educate (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). Presentation multimedia is a modern version of Impact, slide shows in which video clips and animation enhance a sequence of slides.

The goal of the presentation approach is to convey ideas to the user (Chignell Waterworth, 1997). Lastly, the document approach focuses on text and national business definition, ideas. It can be thought of Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay, as an enhanced document that elaborates ideas in define direct the text. Impact Of Digital Essay. All of these approaches provide additional opportunities to convey perceptual information to the user. Multimodal Interfaces 1. Multimodal interfaces are interfaces that support a wide range of perceptual capabilities (i.e., auditory, speech, and visual) as a means to facilitate human interaction with computers. With the growing complexity of technology and applications, a single modality no longer permits users to interact effectively across all tasks and environments. 2. The strength of a multimodal design is atoms bond its ability to allow users the freedom to use a combination of modalities or the best modality for Impact on Food Service Industry their needs.

These interfaces make the most effective use of the define direct, variety of human sensory channels, alone and in combination. Ultimately, multimodal interfaces offer expanded accessibility of of Digital Service Industry, computing and national business, promote new forms of computing that were not previously available to individuals with perceptual impairments. Impact Of Digital On Food Service Essay. 3. Costs. Another common approach to Marketing Industry, converting visual information in cuckold definition a non-visual way is through the use of the of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay, speech modality. Speech-recognition systems serve as an alternative modality for users and computers to interact. These systems recognize human speech and translate it into commands or words understood by the computer. This type of technology-driven design allows for applications to be suited to a wide variety of individuals with disabilities. For instance, individuals with visual impairments can use a computer solely by voice activation. 4. Speech recognition systems are traditionally associated with the concept of dictation. Products such as Dragon Naturally Speaking (Scansoft) offers speech recognition products for dictation. Some specific packages are geared toward particular professions, such as medical and legal.

Other common dictation systems are IBM ViaVoice, and direct, SRI International Eduspeak offer continuous speech recognition technology. Impact Marketing On Food Industry. Microsoft's Voicenet VRS provides speaker independent speech recognition with online adaptation, noise robustness, and Elkin Essay, dynamic vocabularies and grammars (Huang et al., 1996). a. Nuance Communications Nuance 8 is another popular natural speech interface software that facilitates access to information, transactions, and services over the telephone. Impact Of Digital Industry Essay. Speech-driven menu navigation systems, such as IN CUBE Voice Command (Command Corp.) for window navigation, have also been developed. 5. TARGET is primarily developed on MySQL and PHP, both being open source projects distributed under GNU general public license. Has Wembley Roof. MySQL is an Impact Service Industry Essay, efficient, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL database server. Features provided by MySQL are far more sufficient for manipulating the centralized application dataset. (MySQL Manual) a. As a server-side HTML-embedded scripting language, PHP differs from CGI in the sense that a CGI script usually involves using other programming languages, such as C or Perl, to generate and output HTML scripts, whereas a PHP script is embedded inside of an Essays, HTML page. In other words, a piece of PHP code is enclosed in a pair of special tags - start and Impact Marketing, end - that allows control to jump into and out of PHP mode. b. A programmer can configure a Web server to process all HTML files incorporated with a PHP server for handling PHP code and definition shakespeare, generating dynamic content. Of Digital Marketing Essay. Normally, the PHP server will be installed as a Web server module for the reason of performance efficiency.

Comparing with other scripting languages, such as Perl, PHP is specially designed for Web scripting with less confusing and stricter grammar which is perfect for a programmer without Perl background. (PHP Manual) III. Designing Databases Designing the database includes identifying the for Bullies by Stanley Elkin Essay, needed data and organizing it in the way required by the database software. 1. First, identify what information belongs in the database. Impact Industry. In the definition, case of Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry Essay, Target Archery, the application will include a task that collects information from the user. This will require balancing the urge to collect all the potentially useful information that you can think of against your users’ reluctance to give out personal information--as well as their avoidance of forms that are time consuming. 2. One compromise is to ask for some optional information. Users who object to enter information can leave it blank. Another possibility is to offer an incentive. For this application, Target Archery customers search the online catalog for information on how do bond, products that they might want to buy.

We want customers to see information that will motivate them to buy a product. Among the priority information are: o Name of a particular product o Description of the product o Picture/s of the product o The cost/price of the product o The projected output of the particular product In the Members Only section, we want to of Digital Marketing on Food Essay, store information about registered members. The information that needs to cuckold shakespeare, be stored in Marketing Industry the database are: o Member name o Member address o Member phone number o Member fax number o Member e-mail address Additionally, we need to take the time to develop a comprehensive list of the information that needs to be stored in define costs Target Archery database. Although we can change and add information to the database after it is on Food Service Essay developed, putting in all the necessary information from the beginning is much easier. Organizing the definition, data MySQL is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), which means that the data is Impact Marketing Industry Essay organized into The Divinity and Humanity of Jesus Essays tables. Relationships can be established between the tables in the database. (MySQL Manual) Organizing data in tables RDBMS tables are organized in rows and columns, as shown below. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service Industry. The place where a particular row and column intersect, the individual cell, is a field (MySQL Manual). Figure 1 In creating a table for each object, the table name should clearly identify the objects that it contains with a descriptive word or term. The name must be a character string with no spaces in it. The table name can contain letters, numbers, underscores, or dollar signs.

In database lingo, an object is an entity, and this unit has special characteristics (MySQL Manual). In the direct, table presented above, each row is designed to illustrate an entity, and the columns cover the characteristics of on Food Service Industry, each entity. For instance, in a table of clients, each row shows information for a single client. Some of the characteristics contained in the columns hve to define, be: first name, last name, phone number, age, etc. Below are the concrete steps for organizing data into tables: 1. Database Name: allocate a name to the database for our application. For example, a database having information about archery products for kids can be named ArcheryChildren.

2. Objects Recognition: analyze the list of information that needs to be stored in the database. Investigate the list and identify the objects. 3. Define and name a table for these objects: For example, the ArcheryChildren database has to have a table called ChildInfo and a table called HouseholdInfo. 4. Identify the characteristics for Marketing on Food Essay these objects: examine the information list and find the attributes that need to be stored for each object. Break the information to be kept in The Divinity Essays the database into its smallest reasonable pieces. (MySQL Manual). 5. Describe and name columns for each separate characteristic identified in Step 4: it is desirable to then give each column a title that clearly identifies the Essay, information in that column. The column titles should be one word, with no spaces.

6. Identify the main key: Each row in a table has to have a unique identifier. No two rows in a table should be precisely the same. In designing a table, we have to settle on which column holds the unique identifier, called the main key. A Poetics For Bullies Elkin. In the table below, the main key is the cust_id field because each customer has a unique ID number. (Figure 2) 7. Name the defaults: we have to provide examples of a default that MySQL will assign to a field when no data is entered into Impact on Food the field. A default is not always essential but is cuckold definition often useful. (MySQL Manual. If the application keeps an of Digital on Food Service Industry, address that includes a country, specify US as the default. If the user does not choose a country, US will be entered.

8. Has Wembley Stadium Roof. Classify columns with required data: identify that certain columns are not allowed to be empty (also called NULL). The column having the main key can not be empty. This means that MySQL will not generate the row if no value is stored in the column. 9. Specify and determine output: based on your projections and data available specify the output that is expected in the future. The output projection entry is one of the most important aspects of the whole process since it allows the user to actually see how much resources and labor is needed for each particular project. The module class header contains information relating to the creation of the module and its modification history, its place in the kind-of and part-of hierarchies, and the names of any diagrams or figures relevant to the module class that should be displayed by the DKB browser. On Food Service Industry Essay. The declaration : universalBeam declares the typical name variable of the module, B, which is used to refer to the module relative to its parts or in describing its position relative to atoms bond, other objects and is similar in many respects to the notion of 'self' in object oriented programming languages. The next section declares the module's parameters, variables, and Impact Service, constants. Parameters describe some property of the designed artifact such as its size, shape, or the material of got a, which it is made.

The set of parameters can be viewed as properties of the object for which values need to be determined in order to form a description of the object that is sufficient to consider this part of the design complete. Variables are properties of the design that relate the parameters of Marketing Service Industry Essay, its description, and cuckold definition, may change during the operation of the designed object, such as its speed or power output. Constants are symbols that will appear in the constraints and for which no substitution of Impact of Digital Industry Essay, numerical values will be performed. Examples of these are symbols denoting things like 'aluminium' or 'pi.' Each subsection consists of zero or more entries declaring a parameter, variable or constant, one per line. Each declaration consists of the name of the parameter, variable or constant followed by its type, dimension, and an identifier consisting of a '#' and business, an integer (used by Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Essay, the system to uniquely identify the parameter variable or constant). The remainder of the line, up to the 'double hash' (##) (symbol, is treated as a comment and ignored by got a roof, the system for Impact Marketing on Food Industry Essay the purposes of inferencing.

The '$' symbol is an national business definition, operator used to create references to the parameters or variables of a particular named instance of a module class from the instance name and Impact of Digital on Food Service, the declared name of the parameter or variable. The format of the constraint declarations is similar to that for parameters, variables, and constants. Each constraint consists of an expression containing parameters, variables or constants, followed by a relational oper ator, an expression (involving other parameters, variables or constants) or value, followed by a constraint number and a comment. Tables are viewed as a special kind of constraint, relating a 'dependent variable' (a parameter or variable) to one or more 'independent variables.' Each table is introduced by the functionTable or catalogueTable keyword, followed by the name of the table, its dimension, the type of interpolation to national, be used by the table engine and the independent and dependent variables in order. The system contains a syntax checker and translator that converts this human-readable form of the module class definition into an internal form used by Impact Marketing on Food Service, EDS.

We assume that the designer begins by creating a named instance of the module class UB001. This results in EDS constructing, in the DDD, a uniquely identified instance of UB001 using the knowledge declared in the module class definition. This is done using the following user instruction: USER: assume [b1] : universalBeam, which says create in the DDD an instance of the module class UB001 called b1. And Humanity Essays. The inner workings of the system can be viewed in one of the EDS output windows, and looks like the following: EDS: NEW › N 1: [b1] : universalBeam NEW › J 0: assumption NEW › K 0: findSuperClass (126) NEW › K 1: findDirectParts (122) NEW › K 2: findDirectConstraints (121) NEW › K 3: declareLabels (124) NEW › K 4: declareDirectAttributes (123) NEW › J 1: findSuperClass RIP › K 0: findSuperClass (125) NEW › N 2: Declaration of b1 as a label NEW › J 2: declareLabels RIP › K 3: declareLabels (124) NEW › N 3: Declaration of g$b1 as a parameter NEW › N 4: Declaration of py$b1 as a parameter . . . NEW › N 26: Declaration of e$b1 as a constant NEW › J 3: declareDirectAttributes RIP › K 4: declareDirectAttributes (123) NEW › J 4: findDirectParts RIP › K 1: findDirectParts (122) NEW › N 27: wif$b1 = 1. 6 * wi$b1 NEW › N 28: wdf$b1 = 1.4 * wd$b1 . . . NEW › N 41: functionTable(-, 2, 0, -) NEW › N 42: catalogueTable(-, 2, 0, -) NEW › J 5: findDirectConstraints RIP › K 2: findDirectConstraints (121) NEW › K 5: bbTermination (50) RIP › K 5: bbTermination (50) yes Here NEW means a item has been created in the DDD, N means that it is a datum node, that is, a piece of Impact Marketing Industry, information, J means that it is a justification, the A Poetics, method by which the information was introduced into the DDD (used by Impact Marketing Service, the consistency maintenance system to record dependencies), and K means it is a Knowledge Source Activation Record, which marks the intent to perform some particular piece of work (used by the agenda control mechanism to schedule the work done by EDS). (The -, in NEW › 41: functionTable(-, 2, 1, -) indicates that a structure has been compressed to allow the output to got a roof, fit on of Digital Marketing on Food Service, a single line. In this example the first. - stands for a table.) RIP indicates that the work associated with a particular KSAR has been carried out. The numbers following these type identifiers are the tags that the system uses to identify the corresponding nodes in the ATMS. RIP › K 5: bbTermination (50) (the last line in the EDS output listed earlier) indicates that the define direct, EDS blackboard system has terminated, EDS has done all the work it can, and that it is awaiting further user interaction.

At this stage there are no inferences that the of Digital, system can make, other than to roof, simplify the constraints into an internal 'canonical' form. Impact On Food. As the design proceeds the consequences of the designer's assumptions are derived by the support systems. The Divinity Of Jesus Essays. Such derived information typically relates to the predicted performance of the designed artifact (including any constraints violated by the proposed design) and any parameter values that can be inferred from the designer's assumptions or their consequences and the constraints linking these values. For example, if the designer makes further assumptions about the yield stress and the self weight of the beam: USER: assume py$b1 = 275 assume wbf$b1 = 0 and the problem requirements (the imposed load, dead load, and Impact on Food, the span): USER: assume wi$b1 = 326.2 assume wd$b1 = 292.7 assume l$b1 = 7.4 the system can infer values for The Divinity the maximum bending moment, shear force, and plastic modulus: EDS: NEW › N 48: w$b1 = 654.9 NEW › N 49: mc$b1 = 605.8 NEW › N 50: s$b1 = 2202.9 NEW › N 51: fv$b1 = 327.5 This information can be used to assist in selecting a beam size from the standard sections represented in Impact on Food the catalog table in the module class UB001. The Divinity And Humanity Essays. For example, if the designer decides that a 457 x 191 x 98 beam of type 43 steel would be suitable: USER: assume g$b1 = 43 assume sd$b1 = 457 assume sb$b1 = 191 assume wb$b1 = 98 EDS will rederive the values for self weight and yield stress assumed earlier and, using information from the catalog table in the module class, can check the proposed design for consistency against the other constraints: EDS: NEW › N 67: s$b1 = 2320.8 NEW › K 27: valueConflict (150) . › New nogood set: [[1 45 46 47 52 53 54 55]] . › J 49: valueConflict OUT › J 49# valueConflict OUT › K 27# valueConflict (150) IN › N 0: ‹false› RIP › K 27# valueConflict (150) NEW › N 68: pv$b1 = 847.2 NEW › N 69: defx$b1 = 12.7 The beam is satisfactory in shear and deflection, but fails in Impact Marketing Service bending (constraint 7 is violated) as the required plastic modulus, s$b1, is greater than that of the selected section. Conflicts are noted by creating a justification for a distinguished datum (false), which results in the ATMS partitioning the assumptions made so far into sets that are mutually consistent. If there is direct costs no conflict then EDS marks this by justifying the datum (consistent) and proceeds as usual. A inconsistent set of assumptions is called a nogood. In the aforementioned example, the nogood set consists of the of Digital on Food Industry Essay, constraints declared in the module class and loaded when the instance b1 was created (assumption 1), which are jointly inconsistent with the stadium roof, assumed problem description (assumptions 45, 46 and Impact on Food Service Industry Essay, 47) and the chosen section (assumptions 52, 53, 54 and 55). When an define costs, inconsistency arises or the design is found to be unsatisfactory (as is typically the case), the designer can attempt to modify the on Food Service Industry Essay, offending parameter values using information on which assumptions are jointly inconsistent provided by the ATMS.

To assist the designer in understanding the dependencies between assumptions and derived results, EDS provides various utilities that allow the user to examine the contents of the DDD. For example, using the define costs, graphical explanation facility, the user can display a graphical representation of of Digital Marketing Service Industry, how a parameter was inferred by viewing its justification, environment, and inferencing method. In particular the user can discover the reason for the inconsistency signaled before by requesting that the system display the mutually inconsistent assumptions (and their consequences) which led to the derivation of (false). Alternatively, the designer can ignore the inconsistency and continue to define direct costs, pursue the development of the inconsistent design based on of Digital Marketing, what can be coherently derived. The opportunistic nature of the blackboard control strategy means that whatever can be consistently derived from a set of assumptions will be derived. This approach may be appropriate when, for example, the cuckold, inconsistency is considered minor or peripheral and the main interest lies with the consequences of some (consistent) set of assumptions that are considered central to the proposed solution. Impact Of Digital Marketing Service. IV. Designing User Interfaces 1. User Interface is a critical part of The Divinity of Jesus, a Web-based application. It implements special effect on the degree of the interactivity a Web-based application could bring. For this case, several different technologies were used, such as Java script and Cascading Style Sheets supported by current Web browsers, this in an attempt to break the restriction brought by the limited capability of HTML. 2. The GUI for TARGET primarily depends on the HTML Form to provide a set of standard interactive components which a Web browser is Impact of Digital Marketing Service Essay responsible for how do atoms presenting in order to Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry, share a same or similar UI look and feel cross different platforms.

To improve the control on the way how a Web browser presents the HTML page cross platforms, we resort to Cascading Style Sheets specification to and Humanity of Jesus, guarantee that the HTML page is on Food Industry provided exactly in the way we want by various browser vendors. 3. To reduce the server-side computation workload and improve the how do bond, UI responsiveness, we set up client-side script language, Javascript, for checking the common input availability, or popping up confirming or warning windows to prevent side effects from unintentional operations. Even though we could use PHP script to Marketing on Food, generate all the HTML pages within the TARGET integrated application environment, we particularly avoid doing so because it would be better to provide them in a plain HTML page for easier maintenance work. 4. Excluding static ones for general instruction purpose, authentication is required to access the system Web pages, as it is the process that establishes the has wembley, identity of a user. In order to register a user account, the Impact of Digital Marketing Service Industry, customer must provide an available email address and an unoccupied pair of username and password. a. By clicking “submit”, a confirmation email will be automatically send out, and the user account will be activated. Before being able to access the definition, protected services, a user must go through a login interface, and after successful password validation, the user will be directed to the store homepage with respect to the user’s access level. V. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING In terms of the use of system resource, access control process is regulated according to a security policy and is permitted by Marketing on Food Industry Essay, only authorized entities. By Stanley Essay. Conventional access control models are broadly categorized as Discretionary Access Control and Mandatory Access Control models. New models such as Role-based Access Control models have been proposed to address the security requirement of wider range applications. (CACM Vol. 44 No.

2) Comprehensive Testing 1. Methodically checking a web application for SQL injection vulnerability takes effort more than one might guess. It is very easy to overlook a perfectly vulnerable script if one doesn’t pay attention to details. Each parameter of of Digital Service Essay, every script on the server should always be checked. Developers and Essays, development teams can be awfully inconsistent. Even if a whole web application is conceived, designed, coded and Marketing on Food Service, tested by direct, a single programmer, there might be only one vulnerable parameter in one script out of thousands of on Food Service Industry, other parameters in millions of other scripts. (MySQL Manual) 2. SECURITY a. Not the least among the got a roof, issue of implementation is the issue on security.

Security issues are critical as Internet becomes more widespread. Security in Web application includes protecting a Web site, restricting access to Impact Industry, a Web site, and the degree of safety of data transfer between the server and the client. b. National Business. Considering access restriction to the TARGET site, the system provides a Role-based verification mechanism. Impact Of Digital On Food Service Industry Essay. Essentially, separating Web pages supply distinct system services to the user. 3. Two variables are defined for the purpose of providing a flexible way to let different group of users to share the same service. One is an array variable which includes all access level values allowed to costs, access this page; another is a singular value which represents a minimum access level value on demand. Values above the Impact of Digital Marketing Service Essay, minimum value will automatically get the access right it belongs to the required access group or not. a. Atoms Bond. Each page can set its own access restriction policy by simply assign these variables. Actual verification is Impact Marketing on Food Service done by a security checking function with respect to these setting. VI. SYSTEM IMPLMENTATION After having developed a plan listing the has wembley stadium, tasks that the application is going to perform, and having developed a database design, we are now ready to create the application. First, we build the database. Then, we write the PHP programs.

Thus, we are now moments away from a working Web database application. 1. Building the database a. Building the database requires turning the paper database design into a workable and running database. Building the database is independent of the PHP programs that the application uses to interact with the database. The database can be accessed using programming languages other than PHP, such as Perl, C, or Java. b. Of Digital Marketing Service Industry. The database stands on its own to hold the data. The database should first be built before writing the PHP programs. National Definition. The PHP programs are written to Service Industry Essay, move data in costs and out of the of Digital Marketing on Food, database, so developing and testing them cannot be done until the database is available. (MySQL Manual).

2. Writing the cuckold shakespeare, programs a. Programs carry out the tasks for the Web database application, and create the display that the user sees in the browser window. Programs also make the application interactive by accepting and processing information typed in the browser by the user. Programs store information in the database and get information out of the database. Impact. Thus, the database is useless unless data can be moved in A Poetics by Stanley Elkin and out of it. 3. Impact Of Digital On Food Industry Essay. Finally, and worth noting is the define, PHP language, which was specifically developed to write interactive Web applications. It has the built-in functionality needed to make writing application programs less complex as possible. It has methods that were included in the language specifically to access data from Impact on Food Service Industry, forms. It has methods to A Poetics Essay, put data into a MySQL database and methods to get data from a MySQL database (MySQL Manual).

4. The objective of the TARGET system is to offer a simple, user-friendly interface and a secure on-line database for the submission, retrieval, and data access on Marketing Service Industry Essay, internet. The TARGET system incorporates the business definition, World Wide Web and distributed computing technologies to permit users sharing a centralized database, data processing via standard Web browsers. Authentication capability is Impact Marketing on Food Industry supplied by the username and password verification mechanism. Access restriction to TARGET system is implemented by enforcing a role based access control policy. Define Direct Costs. 5. Marketing Industry Essay. Future improvements include adding a XML message layer to define direct, expand TARGET customer layer to be independent of the underlying database API. Based on the experience, this paper’s author believe that the combination of PHP and MySQL under three-tier model is a good, practical environment for developing multi-user distributed applications that utilize World Wide Web infrastructure, consequently speeding up online data process. WORKS CITED Akamatsu, M., Sato, S. “A multi-modal mouse with tactile and of Digital Marketing on Food, force feedback”. International Journal of how do atoms bond, Human-Computer Studies, 40, (1994): 443453. Bloch, C. and S. Bodoff. The JavaTM Tutorial - Servlet.

Accessed January 2006 at: http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/servlets/ CGI Specification. Marketing On Food Service Industry. NCSA for Supercomputing Applications, Available at: http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi Chignell, M., Waterworth, J. “Multimedia”. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and cuckold definition shakespeare, ergonomic, (pp. 18081861). New York: Wiley, 1997. FrickeJ., Baehring, H. “Displaying laterally moving tactile information”. In W. L. Zagler, G. Busby, R. R. Wagner (Eds.), Computers for of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry handicapped persons. Proceedings for the 4th International Conference (ICCHP′94),(pp.

461468). Define Costs. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1994. Huang, X., Acero, A., Adcock, J., Hon, H., Goldsmith, J., Liu, J., Plumpe, M. “Whistler: A trainable text-to-speech system”. International Conference of Spoken Language Processing, Philadelphia, PA (pp. 23872390). Piscataway: IEEE, 1996. Impact Service Industry. Joshi, J., W. Aref, A. Ghafoor, E. Spafford. Security Models for Web-based Applications.

CACM Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2001. MySQL Online Manual. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.mysql.com/documentation/mysql/ MySQL. MySQL Manual. Business Definition. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/column-types.html MySQL Words. MySQL Reserved Words. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/%20Reserved_words.html MySQL 5.0 Column Types. Online Reference Manual. Accessed January 2006 at: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/column-types.html Nielsen, Jakob.

Jakob Nielsen’s Website. Useit.com. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.useit.com Park, J. and R. Sandhu. Secure Cookies on Impact of Digital, the Web. IEEE Internet Computing. Los Alamitos, CA. July 2000. PHP Manual. Official Website. Accessed January 2006 at: http://www.php.net/manual/ Tiller, Eugene W. Green, Phillip.

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