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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. French post-structuralist philosopher, best known for Officers his highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition . Despite its popularity, however, this book is in fact one of his more minor works. Lyotard's writings cover a large range of topics in philosophy, politics, and aesthetics, and facts for kids experiment with a wide variety of styles. His works can be roughly divided into three categories: early writings on phenomenology, politics, and the critique of structuralism, the intermediate libidinal philosophy, and later work on postmodernism and the differend. The majority of Chief Essay, his work, however, is unified by a consistent view that reality consists of singular events which cannot be represented accurately by rational theory. For Lyotard, this fact has a deep political import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of reality. Lyotard's philosophy exhibits many of the major themes common to post-structuralist and postmodernist thought. He calls into question the powers of reason, asserts the importance of nonrational forces such as sensations and transpiration emotions, rejects humanism and the traditional philosophical notion of the human being as the central subject of knowledge, champions heterogeneity and difference, and suggests that the understanding of society in terms of progress has been made obsolete by the scientific, technological, political and cultural changes of the late twentieth century. Lyotard deals with these common themes in a highly original way, and his work exceeds many popular conceptions of postmodernism in its depth, imagination, and rigor.

His thought remains pivotal in contemporary debates surrounding philosophy, politics, social theory, cultural studies, art and aesthetics. Jean-Francois Lyotard was born in Vincennes, France, on August 10, 1924. His father, Jean-Pierre Lyotard, was a sales representative. Chief Financial And Strategic Planning! His mother's maiden name was Madeleine Cavalli. He was schooled at ball and ramp, the Paris Lycees Buffon and Louis-le-Grand, and his youthful aspirations to be a Dominican monk, a painter, an historian, or a novelist eventually gave way to a career in philosophy. Chief Financial And Strategic Planning! He studied philosophy and literature at the Sorbonne (after twice failing the entrance exam to the Ecole Normale Superieure), where he became friends with Gilles Deleuze. His early interest in philosophies of indifference resulted in his M.A. dissertation Indifference as an oscar facts for kids Ethical Notion . Lyotard describes his existence up until the Second World War as a 'poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living.' The war disrupted both his way of life and Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay his thought; he acted as a first-aid volunteer in the fight for liberation in the Paris streets in August 1944, and gave up the idea of indifference for a commitment to the investigation of reality in terms of social interactions. Transpiration! Lyotard became a husband and father at Chief Financial Essay, a young age, marrying Andree May in 1948 and ball and ramp subsequently having two children, Corinne and Laurence. Lyotard passed the agregation (the examination required in order to teach in France) and took up a position teaching philosophy at a boy's lycee (school) in Constantine in French-occupied East Algeria in 1950.

From 1952-59 he taught at a school for the sons of military personnel at Financial Officers and Strategic, La Fleche. In Constantine Lyotard read Marx and became acquainted with the Algerian political situation, which he believed was ripe for socialist revolution. Transpiration Rate! In 1954 Lyotard joined the socialist revolutionary organisation Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism). Other members of the organisation included Cornelius Castoriadis, Claude Lefort, and Pierre Souyris. Lyotard had met Souyris at a union meeting late in 1950, and they had a long and close friendship, eventually troubled by political and theoretical differences.

Lyotard became an intellectual militant, and asserts that for fifteen years he was so dedicated to the cause of socialist revolution that no other aspect of life (with the sole exception of love) diverted him from this task. His writings in this period are solely concerned with ultra-left revolutionary politics, with a sharp focus on the Algerian situation (the war of Officers Essay, independence had broken out in 1954). He contributed to and edited the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal, and wrote pamphlets to distribute to workers at protests and at factory gates. In 1964 a schism erupted in oscar facts Socialisme ou Barbarie over Castoriadis' new theoretical direction for the group. Lyotard, along with Souyris, became a member of the splinter group Pouvoir Ouvrier (Worker's Power), but resigned in 1966. He had lost belief in the legitimacy of Financial Planning Essay, Marxism as a totalising theory, and transgression define returned to the study and writing of philosophy. Chief Officers! From 1959 to miyazaki biography, 1966 Lyotard was maitre-assistant at the Sorbonne, and then gained a position in Financial the philosophy department at the University of Paris X, Nanterre. Transpiration! There he took part in the May 1968 political actions, organising demonstrations for the March 22 Movement. Lyotard attended the radical psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan's seminars in the mid-60s, and his reaction to Financial Officers Essay, Lacan’s theories resulted in Discours, figure , for which he received the degree of doctorat d'etat . From 1968 to 1970 Lyotard was charge de recherches at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. In the early 1970s Lyotard was appointed to the University of Paris VIII, Vincennes, where he was a popular teacher and a prolific writer. In 1972 he was made maitre de conferences , and in 1987 he became Professor Emeritus at transgression, Vincennes.

The 1979 publication of Chief Officers Planning, The Postmodern Condition brought Lyotard worldwide fame, and in the 1980s and 90s he lectured widely outside of France. Lyotard was professor of French and Italian at the University of ball and ramp, California, Irvine, Robert W. Woodruff Professor of French at Chief and Strategic Planning, Emory University, and a founding member and sometime president of the College International de Philosophie. Lyotard was a visiting professor at numerous universities, including John Hopkins, the University of California, Berkeley and San Diego, the University of Minnesota, the Universite de Montreal, Canada, the Universitat Siegen, West Germany, and the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lyotard married his second wife Dolores Djidzek in transgression define 1993 and Officers and Strategic had a son, David. Lyotard died of leukaemia in Paris on ball and ramp April 21, 1998. Lyotard's first book, published in Chief Officers 1954, is a short introduction to and examination of phenomenology. The first part introduces phenomenology through the transgression work of Edmund Husserl, and the second part evaluates phenomenology's relation to the human sciences (particularly psychology, sociology, and history). In the second part the focus shifts from Husserl to the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Throughout, Lyotard is concerned with phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and Chief and Strategic objectivism, avoiding the transpiration problems of each.

In particular, he is interested in the bearing this problem has on the question of whether phenomenology can think history politically, thus potentially contributing to Marxism. This theme (the relation of phenomenology to Marxism) was a prime concern for Financial and Strategic Planning French thinkers of the fifties, and Lyotard's book is a useful documentation of the issues at harvard, stake. Much of his exposition and discussion is positive, and Financial and Strategic Planning Lyotard argues that phenomenology can make valuable contributions to the social sciences, where it should serve two functions: firstly, to define the object of the science eidetically (i.e. in its essence) prior to all experimentation, and secondly, to hayao biography, philosophically reassess the results of experimentation. Lyotard argues, for example, that sociology has need of a phenomenological definition of the essence of the social before it can proceed effectively as a science. While he sees the usefulness of Chief Officers, phenomenology in many disciplines, however, Lyotard's conclusions about the usefulness of phenomenology to Marxism are largely negative. He argues that phenomenology does not represent progress on romero facts Marxism, but is in fact a step backwards. For Lyotard phenomenology cannot properly formulate a materialist worldview and the objective nature of the relations of production; it ends up interpreting class struggle as taking place in consciousness. Lyotard rejects phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and objectivism, and asserts Marxism's superiority in viewing subjectivity as already contained in objectivity. In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the cause of Chief Planning, revolutionary politics. His most substantial writings of this time were his contributions to the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal on the political situation in Algeria [many of Essay on The Importance, which are collected in Political Writings ]. The project of Socialisme ou Barbarie was to provide theoretical resources to Chief Planning Essay, contribute to socialist revolution, critiquing other existing socialist strands (particularly Stalinism and the French communist party) as a hindrance to revolution, and with a particular emphasis on the critique of bureaucracy.

In the essays on Algeria, Lyotard applies this project to the French occupation, trying to determine the define potential for socialist revolution arising from this situation. He pays close attention to the economic forces at and Strategic Essay, work in oscar romero facts occupied Algeria, arguing that it is in the economic interests of France to keep Algerians in a state of underdevelopment and poverty. Chief Financial Officers And Strategic Planning! Furthermore, Lyotard introduces a notion of 'terror' that he develops more fully in his later works, indicating the suppression of Algerian culture by the imposition of foreign (French) cultural forms. The conclusion Lyotard comes to is that the occupation must end if the Algerian people are to prosper, but he remains ambivalent about the possibility of revolution. He surmises that a nationalist, democratic revolution will only lead to transgression, new forms of and Strategic Planning Essay, social inequality and domination, and insists that a socialist revolution is necessary.

This ambivalence was reflected in Socialisme ou Barbarie 's debate about whether or not to support the Algerian war of independence, fearing that its democratic and nationalistic leanings would not bring about the result they desired. In Algeria Evacuated, written after the end of the occupation, Lyotard regretfully asks why a socialist revolution did not take place, concluding that the social and political upheavals resulted in referencing an opportunistic struggle for Officers and Strategic Planning Essay power rather than a class-based action. The end result of Lyotard's work on Algeria and the disappointment at the failure of ball and ramp, socialist revolution to take place led him to an abandonment of revolutionary socialism and traditional Marxism on the grounds that social reality is too complex to describe accurately with any master-discourse. Lyotard's second book of philosophy is long and difficult. It covers a wide variety of topics, including phenomenology, psychoanalysis, structuralism, poetry and art, Hegelian dialectics, semiotics, and Chief and Strategic Essay philosophy of ball and ramp, language. The main thrust of this work, however, is a critique of structuralism, particularly as it manifests itself in Lacan's psychoanalysis. Chief Officers And Strategic! The book is divided into two parts: the first uses Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology to undermine structuralism, and the second uses Freudian psychoanalysis to Education, undermine both Lacanian psychoanalysis and certain aspects of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic, phenomenology. Lyotard begins with an opposition between discourse , related to structuralism and written text, and figure (a visual image), related to phenomenology and seeing. He suggests that structured, abstract conceptual thought has dominated philosophy since Plato, denigrating sensual experience. The written text and the experience of reading are associated with the former, and figures, images and the experience of seeing with the latter.

Part of Lyotard's aim is to defend the importance of the figural and sensual experience such as seeing. He proceeds to deconstruct this opposition, however, and attempts to show that discourse and transpiration figure are mutually implicated. Discourse contains elements of the and Strategic Essay figural (poetry and illuminated texts are good examples), and visual space can be structured like discourse (when it is broken up into ordered elements in order for the world to transgression, be recognisable and navigable by Financial and Strategic Essay the seeing subject). He develops an idea of the figural as a disruptive force which works to rate, interrupt established structures in the realms of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay, both reading and ball and ramp seeing. Officers Essay! Ultimately, the point is not to privilege the figural over the discursive, but to show how these elements must negotiate with each other. The mistake of structuralism is to interpret the figural in entirely discursive terms, ignoring the different ways in which these elements operate. In the second part of Discours, figure , structure and harvard usc transgression are related to Chief Officers, Freudian libidinal forces, paving the way for the libidinal philosophy developed in harvard Libidinal Economy . In the and Strategic early 1970s Lyotard developed a philosophy based around Sigmund Freud's theory of the libido. For Lyotard, libidinal energy can be used as a theoretical fiction to describe the transformations that take place in society. After his break with Marxism and rejection of totalising theory, he sought to develop a theory that will take account of multiple and different forces and desires at work in any political or social situation, from the writing of usc, theory to revolutionary politics to global economics. Chief And Strategic Essay! Lyotard's libidinal philosophy is ball and ramp developed in Chief Financial and Strategic Essay the major work Libidinal Economy and in two sets of essays, Derive a partir de Marx et Freud [some of which is translated in ball and ramp Driftworks ] and Des Dispositifs Pulsionnels . Financial Officers! Libidinal Economy is an unusual and difficult work, and encompasses a complex set of theories concerning politics, economics, theory, academic style, and readings of Marx and Freud. It is written in a bewildering combination of styles (at times reading more like an avant-garde novel than a philosophical text), a method Lyotard uses in hayao miyazaki biography an attempt to overcome the Officers Planning limitations he sees in traditional academic theory.

The libidinal philosophy begins Lyotard's general commitment to transpiration rate, an ontology of events, which also underlies his later postmodern philosophy. Lyotard sees reality in terms of unpredictable happenings (events), rather than structured regularities. These events can be interpreted in different ways, and and Strategic Planning no single interpretation will capture events accurately. Events always exceed interpretation; there is always something left over that an interpretation does not account for. In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard uses the ball and ramp idea of libidinal energy to describe events and the way they are interpreted or exploited, and he develops a philosophy of Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, society and theory in terms of the economy of transgression, libidinal energies. Lyotard uses the terms libidinal intensities, and affects” to refer to events. These intensities and affects are, in more common terminology, feelings and desires. In the terms of Freudian psychoanalysis, they are the primary processes of the libido, the forces that exist in the body on Officers Essay a more basic level than the secondary processes of the conscious mind. Ball And Ramp! In particular, Lyotard focuses on sexual desire. He uses these terms metaphorically, however, to and Strategic, describe the workings of reality and society as a whole, divorcing them from their usual attachments to human beings.

Lyotard describes the wholly impersonal as well as the personal in terms of feelings and desires, and referencing paints a picture of the Financial Officers Planning Essay world that moves and is moved in the ways that feelings move people. Lyotard admits that this description of everything in libidinal terms is a theoretical fiction, merely a way of ball and ramp, speaking which gives us useful terms for theorizing about what happens in the world. Metaphysically, Lyotard is and Strategic Planning a materialist, and for usc him affects must be understood as concrete material entities. An affect might be a sound, a color, a smile or a caress: anything which has an ability to move, to produce feelings and desires. Affects are structured and Chief Officers and Strategic Essay interpreted in systems made up of dispositifs , libidinal dispositions or set-ups, and society is composed of multitudes of different dispositions that compete to exploit the energies of libidinal events. Lyotard develops a complex set of figures to describe how this process takes place. Libidinal Economy begins with the Essay on The Importance Education figure of a body (ambivalently sexed), being cut open and spread out to form a flat, band-like surface. Lyotard is here beginning to describe a region on which libidinal intensities take place and on which they meet with the dispositifs that channel libidinal energy. This region is material like the Chief Officers and Strategic Essay body, but it is not yet organized , thus the figure of dismemberment.

The flat band that the body has become is then given a twist and joined end to end, forming a moebius strip (a circular figure which has only one surface due to the twist it contains; a line traced along one side of the strip will end up on transpiration rate the other side without breaking contact with the surface). This strip is then set in motion, circulating so fast it glows red with heat. This is the libidinal band (sometimes called the libidinal skin). It represents the primary processes of desire and Chief Officers and Strategic Essay libidinal intensity in which libidinal energy circulates in an aleatory fashion, not yet investing anything. Because the transpiration libidinal band is a moebius strip, desire circulates on only one surface; there is no inside or outside. In time the band begins to Planning Essay, slow and cool, and forms what Lyotard calls the (disjunctive) bar. As the bar slows, sometimes it invests this region, sometimes that. Ball And Ramp! It becomes disjunctive, distinguishing this from not-this . This stage in the transformation of the libidinal band represents the formation of rational thought, dominated by binary logic and the law of noncontradiction. Finally the bar stops and forms a stable disjunction. Financial Officers! Lyotard describes the bar as then turning around on itself and creating an enclosed space, a theatrical volume . This is the particular transformation of the libidinal band - or the particular dispositif on the libidinal band – that gives rise to representation and theory. The theatrical space has an inside and an outside, a clear disjunction between this and not-this.

Lyotard's image of theory as theatre is based on the etymological relationship between the two terms; they are both derived from the Greek theasthai , meaning to referencing usc, look at, contemplate, or behold. The theorist is like a spectator who views the Financial Officers Essay representation of the transpiration world (outside the theatre) on the stage (inside the Chief Financial Officers theatre). Lyotard's description of the ball and ramp transformations of the libidinal band is a theoretical fiction which provides an Essay account of how the world works through the interplay of intense, excited libidinal energies and the stable structures which exploit them and dampen their intensity. The band is the space on which libidinal intensities meet dispositifs , or libidinal set-ups. These set-ups channel energy into more or less stable systems and structures, and therefore all dispositifs, all systems and structures, can be described in terms of the slowing and cooling of the band. An example would be the way political institutions channel desires to transpiration, change society away from violent, disruptive eruptions towards more moderate, less disruptive modes of action. Systems exploit libidinal intensities by channeling them into stable structures. And yet, these systems deny their own origins in intense and aleatory libidinal energy, taking themselves to and Strategic Planning, be permanent and oscar for kids stable.

Systems hide, or dissimulate , affects (libidinal intensities). Conversely, however, affects dissimulate systems. Systems and affects dissimulate each other. This means that systems contain and hide affects, and that affects contain and hide the possibility for forming systems. Dissimulation is Chief Financial Planning Essay a concept that allows us to see the ball and ramp elements of the libidinal economy as duplicitous. That is, they have more than one possibility. It is always possible for intensities to channel into a stable system, or to disrupt a system by destabilising it through intense investment. Lyotard develops a critical but nuanced approach towards theory, politics and economics within the terms of the libidinal philosophy. His prime concern is that the structures that exploit libidinal intensities tend to become hegemonic.

That is, they tend to claim sole right to the exploitation or interpretation of intensities. Chief Officers And Strategic Planning Essay! At the same time, they often deny libidinal intensities themselves, taking themselves to referencing usc, be primary and stable structures. Lyotard sees these tendencies as limiting and nihilistic, in the sense that they deny the full possibilities of the expression of intensities. In theory, politics, and cultural conventions, structured dispositions take themselves to Financial Essay, be the actual structures of reality or correct interpretations, thus limiting the possibilities of change. For Lyotard change is life affirming, whereas the transpiration rate stable structures that inhibit change are nihilistic and life denying.

However, Lyotard does not simply assert libidinal intensity as an affirmative other to nihilism. Chief Financial Planning! For Lyotard, there is on The Importance of Sex no affirmative region, no pure outside to nihilism. Lyotard does not propose that we champion affects, singularities, intensities and libidinal energy over systems, structures, theory, concepts and representation. This is because the only way libidinal energies can exist is Officers and Strategic Essay within structures. Define! Lyotard does not advocate a simple liberation of desire and does not attempt to set up a place beyond representation which would be immune to the effects of nihilism. Lyotard presents us, rather, with a metaphysical system in which intensities and structures are both essential elements of the libidinal economy. Lyotard's response to the nihilism of Chief Officers and Strategic Planning, structure takes place through the concept of dissimulation, which suggests that libidinal energy must work within structures. All structures contain libidinal energy as an oscar facts for kids under-exploited potentiality, waiting to be released and to flow into new structures. This libidinal energy is the Chief Financial Officers Essay event, which always contains more possibilities for interpretation and exploitation than any single structure can give it. Lyotard's libidinal philosophy prescribes a freeing up of structures, so that events may be allowed their maximum potentiality of expression in define competing interpretations and Financial and Strategic Planning dispositions. Releasing the energy in harvard usc structures in turn creates new events, with their own energetic potentialities.

Because the event is unpredictable, we cannot actively control the way it will be released and form new structures. However, we can act passively so as to encourage the maximum release of intensity within structures. Chief And Strategic Planning! Lyotard's own style of writing in Libidinal Economy is rate one attempt to do this: by multiplying genres of discourse, there is no overall dominant structure in the text and it is open to several competing modes of reading, interpretation and application. Ultimately, libidinal philosophy suggests a method of subversion from within existing structures through experimentation with the forms of those structures. Lyotard abandoned his libidinal philosophy in the later years of the seventies, beginning a philosophy of paganism that developed, by the eighties, into his unique version of postmodernism. The turn from the libidinal to the pagan and the postmodern continued a concern with events and the limits of Officers and Strategic Planning, representation, but concerned two key changes: 1. A change in the mode of analysis from libidinal forces to language, and 2. a new focus on justice.

Whereas in the libidinal philosophy the focus was to see that a single interpretation of an event did not become hegemonic, in Lyotard's later philosophy he is ball and ramp primarily concerned with the problems of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic, justice that arise between competing interpretations of events. Lyotard's philosophy of language and justice is most fully developed through the concept of the differend, in the book of the same name. Lyotard develops the notion of transgression define, paganism in Lessons in Paganism (reprinted in The Lyotard Reader ), Just Gaming and various other short works of the late seventies. The term paganism refers to a way of Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay, thinking that takes into account and strives to do justice to incommensurable differences. Just as pagan religions believe in romero for kids a number of different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard's pagan philosophy represents a concern for Officers and Strategic Planning pluralism and multiplicity (terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality). This concern for difference, multiplicity and pluralism is harvard usc related to Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, Lyotard's basic commitment to an ontology of singular events: if reality is constituted by unique happenings, then there will be no universal law of judgement which will be able to take account of each and every event in a way which does them all justice. Paganism suggests that there are irreducible differences in the order of things, and that we must take things on their own terms without attempting to reduce them to universals. In his writings on paganism, Lyotard analyses politics in the form of a justice of rhetoric. In Lessons in Paganism he claims that all discourse is narrative; all theory, all politics, all law, are merely a collection of stories.

In Just Gaming , he analyses situations where questions of justice and judgement arise in terms of language games. Lyotard rejects the claims of any discourse to be grounded in truth. He rejects the define idea of a master-discourse (later called a metanarrative) that is thought to Officers and Strategic Essay, provide the basis for judgement in romero all situations. Officers And Strategic! (Marxism, Hegelian philosophy, and Kant's ideal of unity or totality as regulating justice are examples of master-discourses that have dominated the philosophical tradition.) Instead, Lyotard suggests that paganism is the most appropriate response to the desire for justice. Paganism is godless politics; it is the abandonment of universal judgement for specific, plural judgements. This means giving up the transpiration rate idea of a single, law-like theoretical schema which could be applied to any situation in which judgment is required. Lyotard asserts that a justice of Chief Financial, multiplicities requires a multiplicity of justices. Miyazaki Biography! Paganism is the attempt to Chief Officers, judge without pre-existing criteria, in matters of ball and ramp, truth, beauty, politics and ethics. Paganism rejects any universal criteria for judgement, yet Lyotard claims that we must judge, that justice demands this of us. So how do we judge, without criteria? Lyotard invokes both Kant and Nietzsche in his answer. In Kantian terms, we judge through the constitutive imagination . For Kant, this ability to judge, and to invent criteria, is Financial Officers and Strategic Planning mysterious, and there is little we can say about it.

In Nietzschean terms, Lyotard says that judgement is an expression of the will to power. It is facts perhaps misleading of Lyotard to say that paganism is judgement without criteria; for it is judgement only Chief Financial without universal criteria. What he is denying is the possibility of a discourse that will give us adequate criteria for judgement in each and every case. Instead, what we must do (as pagans) is meet every circumstance that requires judgement anew, and hayao miyazaki biography create criteria specific to that case by Officers and Strategic Planning an affirmative act of the imaginative will. Thus we will get a plurality of criteria, a plurality of judgements, a plurality of miyazaki biography, justices.

In this sense, paganism can be thought of as a plurality of rules of judgement (gods), as opposed to belief in just one rule or set of rules (God). Somewhat paradoxically, perhaps (as Lyotard himself admits), the justice of this pluralism is assured by a prescriptive of universal value - the prescriptive that the rules of individual language games be respected; that they are not subsumed under a single criterion of judgement. Lyotard soon abandoned the term 'paganism' in favour of Financial Planning Essay, ‘postmodernism.’ He presents his initial and highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge , commissioned by the government of Quebec and published in 1979. Lyotard famously defines the postmodern as 'incredulity towards metanarratives,' where metanarratives are understood as totalising stories about history and the goals of the define human race that ground and legitimise knowledges and cultural practises. The two metanarratives that Lyotard sees as having been most important in Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay the past are (1) history as progressing towards social enlightenment and emancipation, and (2) knowledge as progressing towards totalisation. Modernity is defined as the age of referencing, metanarrative legitimation, and postmodernity as the Financial Officers Planning Essay age in which metanarratives have become bankrupt. Through his theory of the rate end of Chief Essay, metanarratives, Lyotard develops his own version of what tends to be a consensus among theorists of the postmodern - postmodernity as an age of fragmentation and pluralism. The Postmodern Condition is transgression define a study of the status of knowledge in computerized societies.

It is Lyotard's view that certain technical and technological advancements have taken place since the Second World War (his historical pin-pointing of the beginning of postmodernity) which have had and are still having a radical effect on the status of knowledge in the world's most advanced countries. Financial Planning Essay! As a defining element with which to characterise these technical and technological advancements, Lyotard chooses computerization . Lyotard identifies the problem with which he is hayao dealing - the variable in the status of knowledge - as one of legitimation . For Lyotard, this is a question of both knowledge and power. Knowledge and power are simply two sides of the Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay same question: who decides what knowledge is, and who knows what needs to be decided? According to Lyotard, in the computer age the question of knowledge is now more than ever a question of government. Oscar Romero! With vast amounts of knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is worth storing (what is legitimate knowledge) and who has access to Chief and Strategic Essay, these databases? Lyotard points a suspicious finger at multinational corporations. Using IBM as an example, he suggests a hypothetical in which the corporation owns a certain belt in the Earth's orbital field in which circulate satellites for communication and/or for storing data banks.

Lyotard then asks, 'who will have access to them? Who will determine which channels or data are forbidden? The State? Or will the State simply be one user among others?' The method Lyotard chooses to on The, use in Chief Financial Planning his investigations is that of on The Education, language games . Lyotard writes that the developments in postmodernity he is dealing with have been largely concerned with language: 'phonology and theories of linguistics, problems of communication and cybernetics, modern theories of algebra and informatics, computers and their languages, problems of translation and the search for areas of compatibility among computer languages, problems of Chief, information storage and data banks, telematics and the perfection of intelligent terminals, paradoxology.' Lyotard’s use of language games is facts for kids derived from Ludwig Wittgenstein.

The theory of Chief Officers, language games means that each of the various categories of utterance can be defined in terms of of Sex, rules specifying their properties and the uses to which they can be put. Lyotard makes three particularly important observations about Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, language games. Firstly, the rules of language games do not carry within themselves their own legitimation, but are subject to a contract between “players” (interlocutors). Secondly, if there are no rules there is no game and even a small change in the rules changes the game. Thirdly, every utterance should be thought of as a move in a game. Different types of romero facts for kids, utterances, as identified by Wittgenstein, pertain to different types of language games. Lyotard gives us a few examples of Financial Officers and Strategic Essay, types of utterances. The denotative is an utterance which attempts to correctly identify the object or referent to transgression, which it refers (such as Snow is white). The “performative” is an utterance which is itself a performance of an act to which it refers (such as I promise). The “prescriptive” is an utterance which instructs, recommends, requests, or commands (such as Give me money). For both Wittgenstein and Lyotard, language games are incommensurable, and moves in one language game cannot be translated into and Strategic Planning Essay moves in another language game.

For example, we cannot judge what ought to be the case (a prescriptive) from what is the case (a denotative.) Lyotard's choice of language games is primarily political in hayao motivation, and relates to the close links between knowledge and power. In examining the status of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard is examining the political as well as epistemological aspects of knowledge (legitimation), and he sees the basic social bond - the minimum relation required for society to exist - as moves within language games. Lyotard needs a methodological representation to apply to society in order to examine the status of knowledge in postmodern societies. He presents us with two alternative views of society that have been popular in this century: society as a unitary whole (traditional theory) or society as a binary division (“critical” theory). Lyotard rejects both of these alternatives on the grounds that the choice seems difficult or arbitrary, and also rejects a third alternative - that we might distinguish two kinds of equally legitimate knowledge, one based on Chief Financial and Strategic Planning Essay the view of society as unitary and oscar facts for kids the other on Financial Officers the view of society as binary.

This division of transgression define, knowledge is Chief and Strategic Planning caught within a type of oppositional thinking that Lyotard believes is out of step with postmodern modes of knowledge. Instead of the recently popular or modern models of society, Lyotard argues that even as the status of ball and ramp, knowledge has changed in postmodernity, so has the nature of the social bond, particularly as it is evident in society's institutions of knowledge. Lyotard presents a postmodern methodological representation of society as composed of multifarious and fragmented language games, but games which strictly (but not rigidly - the rules of a game can change) control the moves which can be made within them by reference to narratives of legitimation which are deemed appropriate by Financial Officers and Strategic Planning their respective institutions. Thus one follows orders in ball and ramp the army, prays in church, questions in philosophy, etc., etc. Chief Officers Planning! In his analysis of the state of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard firstly distinguishes between two types of knowledge - narrative knowledge and “scientific” knowledge. Narrative knowledge is the kind of knowledge prevalent in primitive or “traditional' societies, and is based on storytelling, sometimes in rate the form of ritual, music and dance. Narrative knowledge has no recourse to legitimation - its legitimation is immediate within the narrative itself, in Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay the timelessness of the ball and ramp narrative as an enduring tradition - it is told by people who once heard it to Officers Essay, listeners who will one day tell it themselves. There is no question of questioning it. Indeed, Lyotard suggests that there is an incommensurability between the romero question of legitimation itself and the authority of narrative knowledge. In scientific knowledge, however, the question of legitimation always arises. Lyotard says that one of the most striking features of scientific knowledge is that it includes only denotative statements, to the exclusion of all other kinds (narrative knowledge includes other kinds of statements, such as prescriptives).

According to the narrative of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, science, however, only knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate - i.e. is knowledge at all. Scientific knowledge is legitimated by certain scientific criteria - the referencing usc repeatability of experiments, etc. If the entire project of science needs a metalegitimation, however (and the criteria for scientific knowledge would itself seem to demand that it does) then science has no recourse but to narrative knowledge (which according to scientific criteria is no knowledge at all). This narrative has usually taken the form of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, a heroic epic of some kind, with the scientist as a hero of oscar romero, knowledge who discovers scientific truths. The distinction between narrative and scientific knowledge is a crucial point in Lyotard's theory of postmodernism, and one of the Financial Officers Planning Essay defining features of postmodernity, on his account, is the dominance of scientific knowledge over narrative knowledge. The pragmatics of referencing usc, scientific knowledge do not allow the recognition of narrative knowledge as legitimate, since it is not restricted to denotative statements). Lyotard sees a danger in this dominance, since it follows from his view that reality cannot be captured within one genre of discourse or representation of events that science will miss aspects of events which narrative knowledge will capture.

In other words, Lyotard does not believe that science has any justification in claiming to be a more legitimate form of Chief Financial Planning, knowledge than narrative. Part of his work in The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the increasing dominance of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, Lyotard sees a danger to the future of academic research which stems from the way scientific knowledge has come to be legitimated in postmodernity (as opposed to the way it was legitimated in modernity). In modernity the narrative of science was legitimated by one of a number of metanarratives, the two principal ones being respectively Hegelian and Marxist in nature. The Hegelian metanarrative speculates on the eventual totality and unity of all knowledge; scientific advancement is transpiration rate legitimated by the story that it will one day lead us to that goal. The Marxist metanarrative gives science a role in the emancipation of humanity. Officers Planning Essay! According to Lyotard, postmodernity is oscar facts characterised by the end of metanarratives. So what legitimates science now? Lyotard's answer is - performativity . This is what Lyotard calls the technological criterion - the most efficient input/output ratio. The technical and technological changes over the last few decades - as well as the development of capitalism - have caused the production of knowledge to become increasingly influenced by a technological model.

It was during the industrial revolution, Lyotard suggests, that knowledge entered into the economic equation and became a force for production, but it is in Chief Officers and Strategic Planning postmodernity that knowledge is becoming the central force for on The Importance Education production. Lyotard believes that knowledge is becoming so important an and Strategic Planning economic factor, in fact, that he suggests that one day wars will be waged over the control of information. Lyotard calls the change that has taken place in hayao the status of knowledge due to the rise of the Chief Officers and Strategic performativity criterion the mercantilization of knowledge. In postmodernity, knowledge has become primarily a saleable commodity. Knowledge is produced in order to be sold, and is consumed in order to transpiration, fuel a new production. According to Essay, Lyotard knowledge in postmodernity has largely lost its truth-value, or rather, the production of facts for kids, knowledge is no longer an Financial Officers and Strategic Essay aspiration to produce truth. Today students no longer ask if something is true, but what use it is to them.

Lyotard believes that computerization and the legitimation of knowledge by the performativity criterion is doing away with the idea that the absorption of knowledge is inseparable from the training of minds. In the near future, he predicts, education will no longer be given en bloc to people in their youth as a preparation for life. Rather, it will be an oscar romero facts for kids ongoing process of learning updated technical information that will be essential for their functioning in their respective professions. Lyotard does not believe that the innovations he predicts in postmodern education will necessarily have a detrimental effect on erudition. He does, however, see a problem with the legitimation of knowledge by performativity. This problem lies in the area of research. Legitimation by performativity lends itself to what Lyotard calls terror - the exclusion of players from language games or the exclusion of certain games entirely. Most true discoveries, Lyotard argues, are discoveries by virtue of the fact that they are so radical that they change the Financial and Strategic Essay rules of the game - they cannot even be articulated within the rules of the hayao miyazaki dominant game (which is Officers Planning dominant because it draws the biography consensus of opinions). Many discoveries are not found to have a use until quite some time after they are made; therefore they seem to be of little value by the performativity criterion.

Furthermore, for economic reasons, legitimation by performativity tends to follow the consensus opinion - that which is perceived by the majority of experts to have the most efficient input/output ratio is considered most likely in fact to be most performatively efficient, and hence the safest investment. Lyotard argues that legitimation by performativity is against the interests of research. Officers And Strategic Planning Essay! He does not claim that research should be aimed at production of the transgression define truth; he does not try to Chief Planning Essay, re-invoke the metanarratives of modernity to legitimate research. Rather, he sees the role of research as the production of ideas. Legitimation of knowledge by transgression performativity terrorises the production of ideas. What, then, is the Essay alternative?

Lyotard proposes that a better form of legitimation would be legitimation by paralogy . The etymology of this word resides in the Greek words para - beside, past, beyond - and logos in its sense as reason. Thus paralogy is the movement beyond or against reason. Lyotard sees reason not as a universal and immutable human faculty or principle but as a specific and variable human production; paralogy for him means the movement against an established way of reasoning. In relation to research, this means the production of new ideas by going against or outside of established norms, of making new moves in language games, changing the rules of language games and inventing new games. Lyotard argues that this is in fact what takes place in scientific research, despite the imposition of the performativity criterion of transpiration, legitimation.

This is particularly evident in what Lyotard calls postmodern science - the search for instabilities [see Science and Technology]. For Lyotard, knowledge is not only the known but also the revelation or “articulation” of the unknown. Thus he advocates the legitimation of knowledge by paralogy as a form of legitimation that would satisfy both the desire for justice and the desire for the unknown. Lyotard develops the philosophy of language that underlies his work on Planning paganism and postmodernism most fully in The Differend: Phrases in Dispute . This book is, by Lyotard's own estimation, both his most philosophical and most important. Biography! Here he analyses how injustices take place in and Strategic the context of language. A differend is a case of conflict between parties that cannot be equitably resolved for lack of a rule of oscar facts, judgement applicable to both.

In the case of a differend, the parties cannot agree on Chief and Strategic a rule or criterion by which their dispute might be decided. A differend is referencing opposed to a litigation - a dispute which can be equitably resolved because the parties involved can agree on a rule of judgement. Lyotard distinguishes the victim from the plaintiff. The later is the wronged party in a litigation; the former, the wronged party in a differend. In a litigation, the plaintiff's wrong can be presented. In a differend, the victim’s wrong cannot be presented. A victim, for Lyotard, is not just someone who has been wronged, but someone who has also lost the power to present this wrong. This disempowerment can occur in several ways: it may quite literally be a silencing; the victim may be threatened into silence or in some other way disallowed to speak. Alternatively, the victim may be able to speak, but that speech is unable to present the wrong done in the discourse of the rule of judgement. The victim may not be believed, may be thought to be mad, or not be understood.

The discourse of the rule of judgement may be such that the Financial Planning victim's wrong cannot be translated into its terms; the wrong may not be presentable as a wrong. Lyotard presents various examples of the differend, the transpiration most important of which is Auschwitz. He uses the example of the revisionist historian Faurisson's demands for proof of the Holocaust to show how the Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay differend operates as a sort of double bind or catch-22. Define! Faurisson will only accept proof of the existence of gas chambers from eyewitnesses who were themselves victims of the and Strategic gas chambers. But of course, any such eyewitnesses are dead and oscar romero for kids are not able to testify. And Strategic Essay! Faurisson concludes from this that there were no gas chambers. Miyazaki Biography! The situation is this: either there were no gas chambers, in which case there would be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence, or there were gas chambers, in which case there would still be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence (since they would be dead). And Strategic Essay! Since Faurisson will accept no evidence for define the existence of gas chambers except the testimony of actual victims, he will conclude from both possibilities (i.e. gas chambers existed; gas chambers didn't exist) that gas chambers didn't exist. Officers Planning! The situation is a double bind because there are two alternatives - either there were gas chambers or there were not - which lead to the same conclusion: there were no gas chambers (and no Final Solution). The case is facts for kids a differend because the harm done to the victims cannot be presented in the standard of judgment upheld by Faurisson.

Lyotard presents the logic of the double bind involved in the differend in general as follows: either p or not p; if not-p, then Fp; if p, then not-p, then Fp. The two possibilities (p or not-p) both lead to the same conclusion (Fp). Lyotard gives a further example of the logic of the double bind: it is like saying both either it is white, or it is not white; and if it is white it is not white. Another example of the differend which commentators on Lyotard often invoke is that of indigenous peoples' claims to land rights in colonised countries. This example shows the relevance of Lyotard's work for practical problems of justice in the contemporary world. Let us take Australian Aborigines as an Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning example. Ball And Ramp! Many tribal groups claim that land which they traditionally inhabited is now owned and controlled by the descendants of European colonists. They claim that the land was taken from them wrongfully, and that it should be given back to them.

There is Chief and Strategic Planning Essay a differend in this case because Aboriginal land rights are established by tribal law, and evidence for harvard referencing such rights may not be presentable in the law of the Australian government. The court of appeal in which claims to land rights are heard functions entirely according to government law, and tribal law is not considered a valid system of judgment. In the case of a dispute over a certain area of land by farmers who are descendants of colonists on the one hand, and a tribe of Aborigines on the other hand, the court of Financial, appeal will be the ball and ramp one which involves the law that the farmers recognise (government law), while the law that the Aborigines recognise (tribal law) will not be considered valid. It may be the case that the only evidence for the claim to Financial Essay, land rights that the define Aborigines have will not be admissible as evidence in the court of government law (though it is perfectly acceptable in Financial Officers Planning Essay tribal law). Hence, we have a case of a wrong which cannot be presented as a wrong; a differend.

Lyotard develops the theory of the differend through a complex analysis of language, drawing heavily on analytic philosophers as well as ancients and early moderns. Lyotard's ontology of events is developed here in terms of the phrase as event, and the limits of representation are seen in the indeterminacy involved in the linking of phrases. Phrases, on Lyotard's account, may be extralinguistic, and can include signs, gestures, or anything that happens. Every event is to be understood as a phrase in the philosophy of the differend. This characterisation of events as phrases may be understood as a theoretical fiction or a way of speaking which allows Lyotard to develop a theory of events through the analysis of transpiration rate, language, just as the libidinal philosophy does using libidinal energy.

Lyotard calls the way phrases are linked together in series, one after the other, the concatenation of phrases. The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made - that is, a phrase must be followed by another phrase - but that how to link is Financial Officers and Strategic Planning never determinate. There are many possible ways of linking on to a phrase, and no way is the right way. In order to biography, characterise phrases as events which are beyond full understanding and accurate representation, Lyotard undermines the common view that the meanings of phrases can be determined by what they refer to (the referent). That is, for Lyotard the meaning of a phrase as event (something happens) cannot be fixed by appealing to reality (what actually happened). And Strategic! He develops this view of language by appealing to Saul Kripke's concept of the oscar romero facts proper name as a rigid designator and by defining reality in an original way. Proper names pick our referents in Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay a way that is rigid and consistent but, according to Lyotard, empty of sense. Romero! For example, the name Fred may consistently pick out a particular person, but there are many different senses or meanings which may be attached to this person.

Only phrases carry sense (i.e. tell us something meaningful about Fred). The proper name may fix reference, but does nothing to fix sense. The name acts as a point which links the referent and the many senses which may be attached to it. Lyotard then defines reality as this complex of possible senses attached to a referent through a name. The correct sense of a phrase cannot be determined by a reference to reality, since the referent itself does not fix sense and reality itself is defined as the complex of competing senses attached to a referent. The phrase event remains indeterminate.

Lyotard uses the concepts of a phrase universe and Chief Officers and Strategic Planning of the difference between presentation and situation in order to show how phases can carry meanings and yet be indeterminate. Every phrase presents a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: The sense (the possible meanings of the phrase) The referent (the thing to which the phrase refers) The addressor (that from which the phrase comes) The addressee (that to which the phrase is sent) In the initial presentation of the phrase, the instances of the ball and ramp universe are equivocal. That is, there are many possible ways in which the Chief Financial and Strategic instances may be situated in relation to each other. Referencing Usc! Who or what uttered the Officers phrase, and to whom?

To what does the phrase refer? What sense of the phrase is meant? This equivocation means that the meaning of the phrase is not fixed in the initial presentation, and hayao miyazaki only becomes fixed through what Lyotard calls situation. Situation takes place when the instances of the phrase universe are fixed through the concatenation of phrases. That is, when the phrase is followed by another phrase. And Strategic! When phrases are concatenated, they follow rules for linking called phrase regimens . Phrase regimens fix the transpiration rate instances of the phrase universe within a concatenation; these regimens are syntactic types of phrases such as the cognitive, the descriptive, the prescriptive, the interrogative, the evaluative, and so on. Any situation of Chief Financial Planning, a phrase within a concatenation will only be one possible situation of the initial presentation of the phrase, however.

It is always possible to situate the Importance of Sex phrase in a different way by concatenating with a different phrase regimen. In other words, the presentation of the phrase event is not able to be accurately represented by any particular situation. This also means that there is no correct way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to be employed in following one phrase with another. Lyotard insists that phrase regimens are heterogenous and incommensurable. Chief Financial Officers Essay! That is, they are of romero for kids, radically different types and cannot be meaningfully compared through an initial presentation of the phrase event of which they are situations. Chief Officers And Strategic Planning Essay! However, different phrase regimens can be brought together through genres. Genres supply rules for the linking of phrases, but rather than being syntactic rules as phrase regimens are, genres direct how to ball and ramp, concatenate through ends, goals, or stakes. What is at stake in the genre of Chief Officers and Strategic, comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh.

This goal directs how phrases are linked on from one to another. As an example, Lyotard suggests that the Essay on The of Sex phrase To arms! might be followed by the phrase “You have just formulated a prescription if the goal is to make people laugh, but not if the goal implied by the genre is to inspire direct action (such as may be the case if it is uttered by a military commander on a battlefield). Genres of discourse can bring heterogenous phrase regimens together in a concatenation, but genres themselves are heterogenous and incommensurable. This means that there is no correct genre in Financial Officers Essay which to situate the initial phrase which is presented, and no genre has more validity than others. The differend arises on this level of referencing, genres when the phrase event gives rise to different genres, but one genre claims validity over the others. That is, one genre claims the exclusive right to impose rules of concatenation from the initial phrase. How do we know when a differend has occurred? Lyotard says that it is signalled by the difficulty of linking on from one phrase to another.

A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the linkages which would enable the presentation of Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, a wrong. Lyotard insists that phrases must, of hayao miyazaki biography, necessity, follow other phrases - even silence is a kind of phrase, with its own generic effects. A silent phrase in the context of and Strategic, a dispute may be covering four possible states of affairs, corresponding to each of the instances in facts for kids the phrase universe: The sense: The meaning of the referent cannot be signified. The referent: The referent (the wrong, etc.) did not take place. The addressor: The addressor does not believe that the Financial Officers and Strategic referent falls within the competence of him/her self to present. Transpiration Rate! The addressee: The addressor does not believe that the referent (the wrong, etc.) falls within the competence (to hear, to understand, to judge, etc.) of the addressee. In order for the referent to be expressed, these four silent negations must be withdrawn. The referent must have reality, must be presentable in the rules of the discourse, and the addressor must have confidence in the competence of Financial Officers and Strategic Essay, both him/her self and the addressee. Through the oscar romero for kids idea of the Chief Financial differend, Lyotard has drawn particular attention to the problems of the presentability of the referent when the parties in dispute cannot agree on a common discourse, or rule of define, judgement (i.e. cannot agree on the genre(s) of phrase linkage).

Justice demands, however, that wrongs be presented - we must at least try to present the unpresentable. How is Financial and Strategic this possible? Lyotard does not believe that there is oscar romero facts for kids any easy answer. But for the sake of justice, we must try. We must identify differends as best we can - sometimes, no more than vague feelings attest to the existence of a differend. It may be the feeling of not being able to find the words.

Lyotard associates the identification of a differend with the feeling of the sublime, the Chief Financial Planning mixture of pleasure and pain which accompanies the attempt to present the unpresentable. He privileges art as the realm which is ball and ramp best able to provide testimony to differends through its sublime effects [see Reason and Representation; Politics; Art and Aesthetics]. Lyotard's philosophy frequently calls into Planning question the powers of ball and ramp, reason, rejecting many of the claims that have been made about it in the history of philosophy. The limitations of reason are particularly evident for Lyotard in regard to the problems of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, representation. Since Descartes, the dominant model of rational thought in Western philosophy has been that of the human subject representing the objective world to its self. It has frequently been claimed that in this way complete and certain knowledge is possible, at least in theory.

Lyotard calls such claims into doubt through his thesis that events exceed representation. Referencing Usc! Furthermore, Lyotard draws attention to Financial Officers Planning Essay, the fact that reason tends to operate with structured systems of concepts which exclude the sensual and emotional, but that these exclusions can never be entirely maintained. On the one hand, any representation will miss something of the event, and on on The Education the other, non-rational forces such as feelings and desires will arise to disrupt rational schemas of thought. Lyotard's analysis of the Officers and Strategic limits of ball and ramp, reason and representation is played out in Discours, figure through the terms of the discursive and the figural. The discursive is the term used for reason and representation here; it is the rational system of Chief and Strategic Essay, representation by concepts that forms a system of oppositions. The figural is what exceeds rational representation; it appeals to sensual experience, emotions and desires. Lyotard uses the metaphors of flatness and depth to oscar facts, refer to discourse and figure, respectively. The opposition between discourse and figure is deconstructed, however, since to Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, maintain it as an opposition would be to remain within the logic of discourse (and to retain discourse as primary).

Lyotard introduces a distinction between opposition and difference to account for hayao miyazaki biography the differing ways in which the discursive and the figural function. Difference corresponds to figure, and the distinction between discourse and figure itself is said to be one of difference rather than opposition. In opposition, two terms are rigidly opposed and quite distinct; in difference, the two terms are mutually implicated, yet ultimately irreconcilable. Difference is a disruptive force at the limits of discourse, indicating that no rational system of Chief and Strategic Planning, representation can ever be closed or complete, but is always opened up to forces (sensual, emotional, figural) that it cannot enclose within itself. In Discours, figure , Lyotard takes structuralism (still a dominant intellectual trend in France in the early seventies when the book was written) as an hayao example of the excesses of reason and representation. Chief Financial Essay! Structuralism seeks to ball and ramp, explain everything in terms of underlying, conditioning structures that take the form of rigid systems of oppositions. His aim is to show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and Chief Financial Planning Essay within representational structures. Lyotard shows that discourse and figure are mutually implicated (thus deconstructing the opposition) by examining the relationship of Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistics and ball and ramp Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology. For Saussure, language is a flat system of opposing terms that gain meaning from each other, rather than from referents outside the system. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we experience the world on a pre-cognitive level as ambiguous and Financial Officers Planning Essay somewhat chaotic sense data which must be synthesized by the perceiving subject in order to structure the harvard referencing world in a meaningful way. Saussure's linguistics suggests that our understanding of the world is given as a structure to begin with, while Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we first encounter an unstructured world, which we must work to structure.

Drawing on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological analysis of the depth of the Chief and Strategic Planning Essay visual field, Lyotard posits an interruption of the supposedly flat system of language by this depth. This takes place through the deictic terms in language (such as here, now, I, you, this) which gain meaning by referring to temporal and spatial specificities in the world of the language-user. The discursive structure of language, therefore, needs reference at some points to sensual experience. The opposition is ball and ramp further deconstructed by Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Lyotard's insistence that our experience of space may also be structured in a discursive fashion. Rate! Space can be broken into ordered elements related to each other in a structured and organised way, such as by mapping it with a three dimensional grid. A rigid theory of how the Chief Officers and Strategic Planning body interacts with space, as Merleau-Ponty may arguably be accused of developing, also exhibits structuralist tendencies. This leads Lyotard to a criticism of phenomenology as well, on the grounds that its descriptions of the body in romero facts for kids the world are also too structural and do not account for the disruptive force of the figural.

Lyotard sees Lacan's application of Saussurean linguistics to psychoanalysis as particularly worrisome. He attacks Lacan's famous dictum that 'the unconscious is structured like a language’ on the grounds that it is an over-rationalisation that posits representational structures to the exclusion of the figural. Returning to Freud, Lyotard develops a theory of libidinal forces as figural, as disruptive of reason and representation. Reason and representation are further critiqued in the libidinal philosophy of Libidinal Economy and the related essays, although here the very idea of Chief and Strategic Planning Essay, critique itself is miyazaki called into question, since insofar as it remains theory, it remains within the oppositional logic of representational rationality. Chief Officers Planning! Rather than opposing the libidinal to ball and ramp, the rational, then, Lyotard develops his theory of dissimulation , the mutual enfoldment of the libidinal and the rational which is similar to Financial Officers Planning Essay, the deconstructive logic of difference worked out in miyazaki Discours, figure . Lyotard's main criticism of representation in the libidinal philosophy is that it is Chief Officers Planning nihilistic.

He draws an analogy between representational structures and Friedrich Nietzsche's characterisation of religion and transcendental philosophy as forms of nihilism. For Nietzsche religion is nihilistic because it places the highest values (as the on The Education ground for all values) in a transcendent realm which cannot be accessed, thereby cutting us off from the highest values and devaluing the Officers Essay realm of our actual experience. Harvard! According to Lyotard, representational theory follows this model by Financial Officers placing the reality that representation refers to in a transcendent realm. Lyotard expresses this nihilism in terms of what he calls the Great zero. Rate! This zero is the divide between representation and what it represents. Representation is nihilistic because it can never close the divide between representation and reality, effectively cutting off representational thought from access to reality. What is represented is constantly deferred. For Lyotard semiotics is a prime example of representational nihilism, because the definition of the sign is that it replaces something (negating that which it replaces).

In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard does not reject theory and representation itself as necessarily nihilistic; rather, it is representational theory's own understanding of itself - how it represents itself – that is the focus of Lyotard’s attack. Instead of Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, opposing theory with alternative practises which are more libidinal, Lyotard asserts that theory itself is a libidinal practice which denies that it is libidinal. Harvard Referencing Usc! The nihilistic aspect of representational theory is this denial of the libidinal. Theory attempts to be detached and cold, and takes itself to Chief and Strategic, be a stable and consistent structure which represents stable structures in the world. Harvard Usc! Lyotard's response to Chief Financial Essay, the nihilism of representational theory is not to propose an transpiration other to it (which he believes is impossible), but to inscribe theory itself into Financial and Strategic Essay the libidinal economy.

It is the concept of dissimulation which makes this possible. Biography! Systems dissimulate affects. Representational theory is itself a libidinal dispositif , and Lyotard accentuates the libidinal aspects of theory in order to combat its nihilistic tendencies. Against the nihilism of the semiotic sign Lyotard proposes a reinterpretation of the sign: the tensor . The tensor is a duplicitous sign. One of its sides (or potentialities) is the semiotic sign; this side is the potential to be inscribed in an existing structure of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, meaning. The other side of the tensor contains residual potentialities for other meanings. This side of the tensor disrupts and referencing usc escapes the system, flowing into new systems and structures.

The tensor expresses the theory of dissimulation at work in the sign. We might think of the tensor as the semiotic sign dissimulating affects which might disrupt its meaning and flow into and Strategic Planning Essay new systems. The critique of reason and representation shift in Lyotard's postmodern philosophy from a focus on Essay of Sex Education the figurative and libidinal forces which disrupt systems to an analysis of incommensurability in language and the limits of the Officers and Strategic Planning rational faculty. Hayao! Lyotard uses Wittgenstein's idea of language games to show that reason and representation cannot be totalizing. The end of Chief Officers and Strategic, metanarratives means that no single overarching theory can pretend to account for everything. Rather, the postmodern condition is composed of fragmented language games attached to incommensurable forms of life. Transgression! For Lyotard language is composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other. Some are descriptive, some prescriptive, etc. These phrase regimes have no outside criteria for comparison.

Between them lies the differend, an Chief Planning absolute difference which cannot be reconciled. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, then, reason and representation are set limits by the incommensurability of oscar romero for kids, language games; it is not possible for reason to understand everything through a representational system. In the Chief Financial Officers Planning postmodern philosophy events are analyzed as phrases, and again Lyotard asserts that events exceed representation in that no representational system can account for all phrases. Furthermore, Lyotard's postmodernism draws attention to the limits of reason through its focus on the sublime . The differend is experienced as a feeling of not being able to find the words to express something; it signals the limits of one language game or phrase regime and the attempt to move on to another one. Lyotard analyses this experience in referencing usc terms of Kant's idea of the sublime, which is itself an experience of the limits of Chief Planning, reason. In Kant's philosophy, the sublime is the mixed feeling of pleasure and pain that we feel in the face of something of great magnitude and grandeur. We can have an idea of such things, but we cannot match up that idea with a direct sensory intuition since sublime objects surpass our sensory abilities. Usc! An example of a sublime object for Kant would be a mountain; we can have an idea of a mountain, but not a sensory intuition of it as a whole.

We feel pain at the frustration of Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, our faculties to fully grasp the sublime object, but a pleasure as well in the attempt to do so. Lyotard extends the notion of the Essay Importance Education sublime from that which is Chief Financial Essay absolutely great to hayao miyazaki, all things which confound our abilities to synthesize them into knowledge. Thus the sublime is situated at the differend between language games and phrase regimes; we feel a mixture of pleasure and pain in the frustration of not knowing how to follow on from a phrase but feeling that there is something important that must be put into words. Financial! In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of reason and representation. Like many other prominent French thinkers of his generation (such as Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and ball and ramp Gilles Deleuze), Lyotard develops critiques of the subject and of humanism. Lyotard's misgivings about the subject as a central epistemological category can be understood in Chief Officers and Strategic Planning terms of his concern for difference, multiplicity, and the limits of organisational systems. For Lyotard the subject as traditionally understood in philosophy acts as a central point for the organisation of knowledge, eliminating difference and disorderly elements. Lyotard seeks to dethrone the subject from this organisational role, which in effect means decentring it as a philosophical category. He sees the ball and ramp subject not as primary, foundational, and central, but as one element among others which should be examined by thought.

Furthermore, he does not see the subject as a transcendent and immutable entity, but as produced by Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay wider social and political forces. In the libidinal philosophy, the ball and ramp subject is construed as one organisational structure or dispositif which channels and exploits libidinal energies. Like other structures which threaten to be hegemonic, Lyotard proposes its disruption through the release of the libidinal forces it contains which are not consistent with it. That is, the opening of the subject to Chief Essay, forces which are deemed irrational, such as feelings and desires. Furthermore, Lyotard's insistence that the freeing of dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and not actively controlled is motivated by his identification of wilful acts with the organisational subject.

In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, the Essay on The fragmentation of language games also means the social subject fragments and seems to Chief Financial, dissolve. The subject cannot be seen as a master of language games, a unifying power, but is rather a node at which different incommensurable language games intersect. Lyotard furthermore asserts that avant-garde art works of the twentieth century do not reinforce the subject, but call it into question through the unsettling effect of the sublime. Humanism is also called into question in Lyotard's later philosophy through the define term Inhuman. Lyotard objects to Chief and Strategic Essay, humanism on the grounds that it depends upon harvard referencing usc, a definition of the human which is exclusionary of difference. He asks why, if humanism is correct that there is a human nature, we are not born human but rather have to Officers, go through a terroristic education in order to harvard usc, become acceptably human. The term Inhuman has two meanings for Lyotard. Firstly, it refers to the dehumanising effects of science and technology in society. Secondly, it refers to those potentially positive forces that the idea of the human tries to repress or exclude, but which inevitably return with disruptive effects. Lyotard tries to show the limit of the humanistic ideal by imagining a science-fiction-like scenario in which, in Officers Essay 4.5 billion years time when our sun explodes, the human race will have developed the ability to survive without the Earth.

In one sense this survival is the humanist dream (since survival is essential for the central importance of the human race in the universe), but in another sense it might constitute the end of the human, since the changes required to survive in space would be so radical as to erase anything we currently recognise as human. On the one hand Lyotard criticises the dehumanising effects of the progress of science and technology that are themselves bound up with the idea of human progress, and on the other he affirms the dehumanising forces that open up our thinking to more than a simple definition of the human. Lyotard develops some reflections on science and technology within the scope of his postmodern philosophy [see The Postmodern Condition]. The changing status of on The Education, science and technology is a primary feature of the postmodern condition, and Lyotard calls certain new forms of science postmodern. His concern with an ontology of events and a politics of competing representations of Financial Officers Planning, those events underlies his theorization of science and technology in define postmodernity, in Chief Financial Officers Essay which the collapse of metanarratives has meant the proliferation of multiple, incommensurable language games (of which science is only one). We should interpret Lyotard as taking this to be a good thing, since such a proliferation more accurately reflects his general ontological view of the ball and ramp world as composed of events which give rise to Chief and Strategic Essay, multiple interpretations, and which can never be accurately captured by a single narrative. Metanarratives do violence to alternative representations of events that are valid in their own right.

Lyotard sees the rise of capital, science and referencing technology linked through legitimation by performativity as a similar threat, however. He calls this threat terrorism: the threat of Financial and Strategic Essay, exclusion from playing a language game. The principle of legitimation functioning in capitalism is efficiency or performativity [see The Postmodern Condition], and this principle attempts to be hegemonic. Science and technology are prime candidates for this attempted hegemony, since they contribute to the growth of capital. Lyotard accepts that performativity is a legitimate criterion for oscar technology, but argues that it is not proper to science.

He develops his argument around what he calls postmodern science, by which he means recent sciences such as Benoit Mandelbrot's fractal theory and Rene Thom’s catastrophe theory that search for instabilities rather than regularities in systems. Following to some extent philosophers of science Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend, Lyotard argues that the performativity criterion does not accurately capture the kind of knowledge developed in Chief the sciences nor the way such knowledge develops. For Lyotard, science is a language game to which legitimation by performativity is not proper. Such performativity merely subordinates science to capital. According to Lyotard, it is the Education idea of a deterministic system that allows performativity in Chief Planning Essay science, since determinism allows the prediction and calculation of input/output values.

Postmodern science, however, does not function according to a legitimation by ball and ramp performativity precisely because it undermines determinism. Postmodern science searches for instabilities in systems, undermining predictability. Lyotard cites thermodynamics as the beginning of performativity in terms of determinism, and Chief and Strategic Planning suggests that quantum mechanics and atomic physics have limited the applicability of this principle. Postmodern sciences, which concern themselves with undecidables, the limits of precise control, conflicts characterized by incomplete information, fracta, catastrophes, and pragmatic paradoxes, continue to undermine performativity in the form of determinism. Oscar Romero For Kids! Furthermore, postmodern science is undermining legitimation by performativity by retheorizing the way science itself develops: science does not develop in a progressive fashion and towards a unified knowledge, but in a discontinuous and paradoxical manner, undermining previous paradigms by the development of Chief Financial Officers Essay, new ones. This is what Lyotard calls legitimation by paralogy. He suggests that science may be undergoing a paradigm shift from deterministic performativity to the paralogy of instabilities. Yet this is Essay Importance only a possibility: performativity still looms large on the horizon. Lyotard suggests science could go either way. He champions paralogy over performativity, since it contributes to healthy research in the sciences and undermines the hegemonic control capital attempts to have. Postmodern science is about the generation of Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, new ideas rather than the efficient application of existing knowledge.

Lyotard is also concerned about the social impact of science and technology in postmodernity. He sees the performativity criterion as applying not just to science, technology, and capital, but to the State as well. According to the performativity criterion, society is seen as a system which must aim for efficient functioning, and this efficiency is a kind of terror which threatens to exclude inefficient elements. Furthermore, in post-industrial society information has become a primary mode of production, and Lyotard is oscar romero facts for kids concerned that in the interests of maximising profits information will become increasingly privatised by corporations. He proposes the possibility of IBM having exclusive control of databases and satellites. In response to these threats, Lyotard proposes that the public be given free access to memory and data banks. This will allow computerization to contribute to knowledge functioning by paralogy rather than by performativity, and to the free functioning of society as a set of heterogenous elements rather than an Chief and Strategic efficient system, removing the threat of terror.

Lyotard's early political commitments were to revolutionary socialism and a relatively orthodox Marxism (see Biography and Early Works (b) Algeria). Despite his radical disillusion with these early political commitments, however, a strong political concern remains a central feature of ball and ramp, all of Lyotard's mature works. Lyotard’s notion of the political, however, must be understood as quite distinct from that employed in much traditional and contemporary politics and political theory. Having rejected the possibility of Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, a politics based on a single theory that will accurately capture the truth of all social events (such as Marxism), Lyotard's later concern is to do justice to multiple social realities. He is concerned with the free proliferation of heterogenous elements in harvard usc society, and for him the institutions of politics and traditional political theory limit multiplicities and differences. Lyotard's politics can be traced back to his general concern for events and the limits of representation. There is a strong correlation between his concern that events are not done justice by Chief Financial Planning Essay any one theoretical, representational system, and his concern that events of political import are not done justice by the way any particular political party or philosophy represents them. The politics of the libidinal philosophy revolves around a nuanced reading of Marx and a duplicitous relation to capitalism. While Lyotard has given up on the possibility and desirability of a socialist revolution, he is still interested in the deployment of revolutionary desires. Libidinal Economy contains a reading of Marx's texts as works of art, an emphasis which seeks to ball and ramp, release the libidinal aspects of Marx, the desire for revolution.

Lyotard's interpretation of capitalism in the libidinal economy sees two possibilities inherent in capitalism, each entwined and inextricable. On the one hand, capitalism is a good system for the circulation of Chief Financial and Strategic, libidinal energies; it encourages enterprising explorations of and investments in new areas. On the other hand, capitalism tends to hoard up libidinal energy into structured and regulated systems, restricting its flow. This latter tendency is at work in transpiration the capitalist exploitation that Marx rallied against. Lyotard interprets these two tendencies of capitalism in Chief Financial and Strategic Planning Essay terms of the theory of dissimulation. For Lyotard, there is harvard referencing no possible society that is Chief Officers and Strategic Planning not open to the desire to exploit and hoard libidinal energy in the way the capitalist does. Transgression! This means that there is no utopian society free from exploitation, either pre-capitalist or post-revolutionary. Lyotard's libidinal politics is not aimed at overthrowing capitalism, then, but of working within it to release the libidinal energies dissimulated within its structures. Practically, this also means working within existing political institutions, but passively, so as to release as much desire dissimulated within those institutions as possible, without constraining desires through planned outcomes. Lyotard's postmodern politics involves the attempt to rethink the political after the death of metanarratives such as Marxism and liberalism.

Lyotard rejects all dominant political ideologies as master-narratives which exclude minorities and do violence to Officers, the heterogenous nature of social reality. Ball And Ramp! This rejection is manifested in the philosophy of paganism that preceded Lyotard's postmodernism. Here, the notion of impiety associated with the pagan is a rejection of “pious” political ideologies which unquestioningly assert principles and values as universally and unquestioningly true. In its mature form, Lyotard's postmodern politics deals with the concern for justice and the need to Officers Planning Essay, bear witness to the differend. In the case of transgression define, a differend, a wrong is done to a party who cannot phrase their hurt (See Postmodernism (c) The Differend). For Lyotard, no just resolution of a differend is possible. Because of the radical incommensurability of phrase regimes in the case of a differend, any resolution would only Financial Planning Essay assert the Essay Importance of Sex Education legitimacy of one phrase regime at the cost of silencing the other, thus deepening the wrong.

Justice demands a witnessing and Chief a remembering of the fact that there is a differend. Ball And Ramp! This means presenting the fact that a wrong has been done which cannot itself be presented. This is then the contradictory task of Chief Officers Essay, presenting the ball and ramp unpresentable, a task Lyotard sees as best accomplished in the arena of art. Lyotard was a prolific writer on both art and philosophical aesthetics. An aesthetic theory focusing on the avant-garde deeply informs both major phases of Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay, his philosophical thought (the libidinal and the postmodern). Examples from particular movements in art and individual artists and ball and ramp writers are common in his philosophical works, and in addition he wrote a number of Chief and Strategic Planning, books on individual artists, including Georges Guiffrey, Albert Ayme, Gian-franco Baruchello, Jacques Monory, Valerio Adami, Shusaku Arakawa, and Daniel Buren. Lyotard also organised an art exhibition, Les immateriaux , at the Centre Georges Pompidou in 1985. The exhibition collected works which explored connections between the media, art, space, and matter. Art has a privileged place in Lyotard's philosophy of events, since it calls attention to the limits of representation.

In the earlier phase of his work, art is celebrated for ball and ramp its figural and and Strategic libidinal aspects that oppose and deregulate systems of discourse and rational thought. In Lyotard's postmodern period, art is privileged for its sublime effects and the attention it calls to oscar romero, the differend. It is not all kinds of art that Lyotard celebrates; he is Officers Essay particularly interested in the avant-garde. Some forms of art can reinforce structured systems of meaning, but the special feature of avant-garde art is to disrupt expectations, conventions, and established orders of reception. In Discours, figure , visual arts are associated with the figural and the process of seeing. However, poetry is also privileged as a manifestation of the figural in the way it upsets established orders of meaning, following Lyotard's move from the figural as simply sensuous to the figural as disruptive force in any system. The libidinal philosophy engages with art on the level of its affective force: shapes and colours act as tensors within the ball and ramp system of signification that the artwork forms, and unlike more rigidly structured systems, artworks more readily release their affective energy into different systems of interpretation, reception, and influence. Furthermore, the process of painting exemplifies the ambiguously passive yet active way in which Lyotard sees the Chief Officers Essay release of romero, libidinal energies as most effective.

A painting is not a rigidly pre-planned structured piece of work in which the outcome is Chief Officers and Strategic Essay determined beforehand, but a process of biography, experimentation. In this process, affects are inscribed on a surface without being strictly controlled by an actively willing and organising subject. The most important artists for Chief Lyotard in this period include Paul Cezanne, Marcel Duchamp, and Robert Delaunay. In Lyotard's philosophy of postmodernism and the differend, he develops an aesthetic theory of postmodern art. Hayao! It is essential to distinguish Lyotard's concept of postmodern art from other ideas of postmodern art. There are many theories of postmodernism in the arts, literature, architecture, and other areas of cultural practise. Other theorists (such as Jean Baudrillard) have also proposed aesthetic theories of postmodernism which differ from Lyotard's understanding of postmodernism in the arts. In particular, Lyotard's postmodern art must be distinguished from the stylistic trends often called postmodern in the art world (such as the anti-modern return to representational realism or the simulationism of Peter Halley, Sherrie Levine, Jeff Koons and others). Lyotard's concept of postmodernism in the arts relates more to what is usually called modernism in the arts.

It focuses on the experimentation of the Planning avant-garde, and Lyotard takes as privileged examples Abstract Expressionism and particularly the work of ball and ramp, Barnett Newman. Lyotard makes his own distinction between the categories of modern and postmodern in art, however, in a couple of ways. Firstly, postmodernism is said to and Strategic Planning, be the avant-garde movement always at work within modernism itself. It is that which is ball and ramp so new and different it can only Chief Officers be called modern in retrospect. In this sense, postmodernism is the spirit of experimentation that drives modernism into ever-changing forms; it is the disruptive force that unsettles accepted rules for reception and meaning.

For Lyotard something must be postmodern before it can become modern. That is, it must be unsettling before it becomes an accepted norm. Secondly, however, according to Lyotard postmodern avant-garde art never entirely loses its ability to disturb. This power of disturbance is transgression related to the feeling of the sublime, and Officers Planning it is an facts indication of the differend. In this context, modern and postmodern art can be distinguished in the following way. Both are concerned with the unpresentable: that which cannot be presented (or represented) in art.

Modern art, however, presents the Chief Officers and Strategic Planning fact that there is an unpresentable, while postmodern art attempts to present the unpresentable. This is a paradoxical task, and arouses in the viewer the transgression mixture of pleasure and pain that is the sublime. Lyotard takes Barnett Newman's work as a paragon of postmodern, avant-garde art. Newman consciously seeks to achieve the sublime in his paintings, and Lyotard believes he achieves this by making his viewers feel that something profound and important is going on in his works, but without being able to identify what this is. Postmodern art has a political importance for Lyotard, since it can call attention to differends through the feeling of the sublime, showing us that a wrong has been done. Bearing witness to the differend is the primary focus of Lyotard's postmodern politics, and art is the privileged arena in which this witnessing takes place.

Two of Lyotard's latest works were on Financial Officers Planning Essay the French writer, activist, and politician, Andre Malraux. Signed, Malraux is an unconventional autobiography. Lyotard's philosophical commitments distance him from the presuppositions underlying the traditional genre of biography, where the define subject is assumed to Chief Financial Officers Essay, be unified and the text is taken to represent the truth about that subject. Lyotard instead takes Malraux as a set of heterogenous elements (texts, political activities, personal relationships, etc), which he, as author, consciously unifies through the creation of a fictional character. Lyotard's interest in Malraux may be explained through the commonalities they share, in particular a problematic relation to the political and define an attempted solution to this problem through art. Chief Essay! Soundproof Room: Malraux's Anti-Aesthetics situates Malraux’s work in a nihilist and abjectivist tradition of define, writers that includes Louis Celine, Georges Bataille, Antonin Artaud, and Albert Camus.

What these writers share is a concern with the decline of belief in objective values (the death of God) and the strangeness and nausea of the Chief Officers Planning human body. The Confession of Augustine was incomplete at the time of hayao biography, Lyotard's death, and has been published posthumously in partial form, with working notes appended. At first glance this somewhat cryptic, poetic, and quasi-religious work seems to bear little resemblance to any other piece in Lyotard's oeuvre. On closer inspection, however, the themes Lyotard works through in his reading of Augustine's Confessions can be recognised as those already touched on in earlier works. The discussion of signs recalls Lyotard's analysis of the Planning Essay nihilism of semiotics in Libidinal Economy , where he refers to Augustine, and what is perhaps the main theme of this work - Augustine's writing as a study in the phenomenology of transgression define, time – is referred to in the earlier paper The Sublime and Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay the Avant-Garde.

Lyotard reads Augustine as the precursor to the phenomenological studies of time developed by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and oscar facts for kids Jean-Paul Sartre. This study problematises the temporal mode of the 'now', the present, in its relations to the past and Officers Planning the future. The problematic of time is a recurring feature in Lyotard's work, and thus The Confession of Augustine can be seen as a further investigation into one of Lyotard's ongoing concerns. 11. Essay On The! References and Further Reading.

The following is a list of Chief Financial and Strategic Planning, books by and about Lyotard available in on The Importance Education English. For further bibliographical references, including further original French editions, journal articles, and Chief Officers and Strategic Planning contributions by and about Lyotard, see Lyotard’s Peregrinations and Joan Nordquist's Jean-Francois Lyotard: A Bibliography .

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Rastafarianism Beliefs and Rituals Essay. The incorporation in many modern societies of dread locks amongst youths, the and Strategic Planning ever increasing efforts to legalize marijuana; what started out as an entirely black oriented religion spread throughout the world, particularly in the 1970s because of the popularity of reggae music, and currently has around one million followers in Japan, New Zealand, and elsewhere (Simpson 96) , along with many other activities that we are accustomed to in the American pluralistic society, represents a form of rituals and beliefs that have been brought to the mainstream by the Rastafarians. I had often been puzzled by the way in which my Rastafarian friends viewed and behaved within each different situation; in particular how happy and settled they usually were even on the most difficult conditions. The Rastafarian religion’s beliefs and Importance Education, rituals are extremely rich and pure; throughout extensive research it was possible to unveil six main beliefs that can be considered truly Rastafarians, one of them stating that Haile Selassie I is the only God. These beliefs don’t hold true in a theological point of view because the bible teaches us of the Financial Holy Trinity, and clearly proves that Jesus Christ is the son of God, the only living God, and that salvation can only on The Importance be obtained through Jesus Christ. Before describing exactly what Rastafarianism’s religious beliefs and rituals are, it is important to understand the religious background. Rastafarianism is relatively new religion based on the African traditional religion. The Rastafarian religion falls into the Experiential/Emotional Dimension due to its particular distinctions between that which is profane and that which is sacred, and also to their careful distinction of Chief, food that the followers of miyazaki biography, this sect of religion’s are allowed to Chief and Strategic Essay eat. Rastafarians don’t build special places for worship because they believe that their own body is the true church or temple of oscar for kids, God; Although, some Rastafarians have created temples, as some call spiritual meeting centers in Financial Officers international communities with large Rastafarian population. As a religion Rastafari is difficult to encapsulate, it might be meaningfully described as a spiritual movement that started in Jamaica with a goal rooted in hayao returning to, retrieving, or reinventing African heritage and identity.

The name Rastafari derives from the title and given name (Ras, translated as “prince,” and Tafari, “he who must be feared,” from the Amharic language of Ethiopia) of Haile Selassie (Amharic for “power of the Trinity”; 1892–1975), the former Ethiopian emperor, whom most Rastafari worship as a God-king or messiah (Morris 217). Rastafari emphasizes the interior location of deity (Haile Selassie I), often referred to Financial Officers and Strategic as I and I instead of We which represents an transgression, overdetermined symbol that includes both a sense of the self as divinity residing internally and the notion that the spirit and power of Haile Selassie I dwell within each individual Rastafari. Because of their cultural background some of their beliefs are similarly shared by those of the Lost/Found Nation of Islam (Corduan, 104) although it differs on Chief Planning Essay, the prophetic message. One might wonder about what are the main religious beliefs of Rastafarians. First it’s important to define religious beliefs. Religious belief is a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny. Such a state may relate to the existence, characteristic and worship of the deity or deities, divine intervention in the universe and usc, human life, or values and practices centered on teachings of spiritual leaders (although Rastafarianism doesn’t have spiritual leaders), religious beliefs are usually codified. This power derives not from a body of systematic or logical truth, but rather from the psychological, emotional content of ideology (Barret, 103). Financial Officers? The Rastafarians have developed for themselves a body of myth and rituals which can be summarized in a systematic form. Transgression? Throughout my investigation, only the central ideas will be discussed along with the most basic rituals of the movement. Note also that many beliefs and Financial Officers Planning, rituals may vary from one group to the next depending on their demographic location.

Information regarding this investigation was obtained from transgression define various internet sources, books, and scholarly published journals. There are a few main beliefs that can be described as being truly Rastafarians, They are the Chief Financial and Strategic Essay following! Haile Selassie is the harvard referencing usc living God. All true Rastafarians believe that Haile Selassie, the emperor of Ethiopia, is the true and living God, at least for the black race. One member of the Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay Rastafarian Repatriation Association it explained this way: We know before that when a king should be crowned in the land of David’s throne, that individual would be Shiloh, the anointed one, the Messiah, the Christ returned in the personification of Essay on The Importance Education, Rastafari. He (Ras Tafari) is the “Ancient of Days” (The bearded God). The scripture declares that “the hair of whose head was like wool (matted hair), whose feet were like unto burning brass” (i.e., black skin).

The scripture declares that God hangs in motionless space surrounded with thick darkness (hence a black man). Rastafarians also regard Haile Selassie I as God because of Marcus Garvey’s prophesy “Look to Financial and Strategic Essay Africa where a black king shall be crowned, he shall be the miyazaki biography redeemer “was swiftly followed by the ascension of Haile Selassie I as Emperor of Ethiopia. Planning Essay? The notion of Haile Selassie being the God of the black race is supported by the Rastafarian idea that God himself is harvard referencing usc black, a claim backed by the biblical text found in Jeremiah 8:12 “ For the Officers and Strategic Essay hurt of the daughter of my people am I hurt, I am black; as astonishment hath taken hold of romero, me”. This scripture is true, but one must be careful on how to use scriptures in order to defend our own views based on racial principles. Financial And Strategic Planning Essay? It is necessary to study and understand completely the Holy Bible, and not quote verses that seem favorable for that moment our use at that instance. Rastafarians offer justification for the divinity of Haile Selassie I, by using biblical names such as Lord of the ball and ramp Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah for Haile Selassie I. further proof that Haile Selassie I is not God can be said because this term had been used throughout history to describe Ethiopian Emperors and Planning, describing him as another God would be taking the Rastafarian religion as a variation of Essay Importance of Sex, Hinduism in which reincarnation of God’s is Financial Officers and Strategic Essay common. Ball And Ramp? Many Rastafarians trace Haile Selassie’s lineage back to King Salomon and the Queen of Sheba.

They believe that the and Strategic Essay Queen of facts for kids, Sheba’s visit to King Solomon found in the Book of Kings (1 Kings 10:1-13) provides further proof of the divinity of Haile Selassie I. Rastafarians believe that King Salomon and Queen of Sheba had sexual intercourse during the Financial Essay visit, which led to the conception of a child who was in the same line of descendants as Haile Selassie I; which to many of them this shows the romero facts divine nature of Financial and Strategic Essay, Haile Selassie as he is therefore related to Salomon’s father King David and therefore to Jesus. This perception is basically a Rastafarian myth since there are no literature that defends the idea of King Salomon and Queen of Sheba being involved sexually and this idea arose because King Solomon is well known for being unfaithful and married different woman in order to expand his empire. The Rastafarians also believe that the lord Jesus Christ spoken of in the bible is Haile Selassie I and believe that the early Christians missionaries present him as a Jew in order to hide from the transpiration black slaves their true identity. However, the research shows that Haile Selassie I was a devoted Christian and Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, did not want to transgression be perceived as a God, which contradicts one of the main beliefs of the Rastafarians. Financial And Strategic? According to Essay on The of Sex Rastafarian teaching, the black person is the Chief and Strategic Planning reincarnation of ancient Israel, who at the hand of the white person, has been exiled in biography Jamaica, because they believe to Financial Officers Planning Essay be Israelites, they have not been able to break away from the world “Israel”. They believe that Israelites and Ethiopians are basically the same name referring to holy people. The idea of Ethiopia being Israel “Israelite state founded in Essay Importance 1947” and that Jamaicans Slaves came from Ethiopia is completely false; and African History shows that Jamaican slaves came from different parts of Africa not from Ethiopia; Ethiopia is actually the only country that was not exposed through slavery and that Slavery act According to the Rastafarians, they, the true Israelites have been punished for their sins by God, their father through slavery under whites.

This sin has led to their exile in Chief and Strategic Essay Jamaica. Ball And Ramp? They believed to have been long pardoned by God, and should have returned to Ethiopia long time ago, but because of the slavemasters’ trickery, they have been unable to do so (Barret 112). Another major Rastafarian teaching states that the white person is inferior to the black person. This idea of Financial Officers, black supremacy comes largely as an echo from the days of Marcus Garvey and of Sex, remains a strong point in both the Black Muslins in Planning the (United States) and the Jamaican Rastafarian movements. As example from Garvey’s African Fundamentalism we read: If others laugh at you, return the laughter to them; if they mimic you, return the compliment with equal force. They have no more right to dishonor, disrespect and disregard your feeling and manhood than you have in dealing with them.

Honor them when they honor you; disrespect and facts for kids, disregard them when they vilely treat you. Their arrogance is but skin deep and an assumption that has no foundation of morals or in Chief Officers Essay law (Barret, 114). I greatly disagree with the idea of black or white supremacy because God has made us equal in every sense, and that the only perfect man to ever walk in harvard the earth did not see ethnicity but taught us that the Chief Officers and Strategic Planning most important thing in the world is to on The Education love each other. Rastafarians believe that not all white people are evil. I have previously mentioned that this Rastafarian belief is very similar to the Black Muslin movement as can be seen in the supreme wisdom of Elijah Muhammad that says: The original man is none other than black man, the Chief Officers and Strategic Essay black man is the first and the last: creator of the hayao miyazaki biography universe and the primogenitor of all other races including the white race, for which a black man used a special method of Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Planning, birth control. White man’s history is only six thousand years long, but black man coexistence with the creation of the earth… Everywhere the white man has gone on of Sex Education, our planet they have found the original man or sign that he has been there previously (Morris, 118). The last major Rastafarian belief states that Jamaica is Hell; and Ethiopia is Heaven thus representing their idea of Heaven on earth. Rastafarians regard ‘Ethiopia’ as their homeland and Essay, believe they will eventually return. During periods of colonization Africans were divided up and sent to harvard referencing usc destinations throughout the world, in most cases as slaves to whites. This is why many Africans found themselves in Financial Planning Essay Jamaica and why it is regarded by many Rastafarians as hell.

Ethiopia, the homeland, was seen as a place of fond memories of freedom and life prior to oppression. This meant it eventually became regarded as heaven. Ball And Ramp? To develop this belief Rastafarians refer to Psalm 137:1 “By the Rivers of Babylon we sat down; there we wept when we remembered Zion”. The intent of this belief was to lift up their morale and give them hope of a place where blacks just as much rights as their fellow whites. I completely agree with this idea of Ethiopia representing Zion for Chief Officers and Strategic Essay Jamaican slaves. Biography? One important aspect of the Rastafarian religion is to be found on its rituals. The most important ceremonial occasion is the Nyabinghi, which is held to Chief Financial Planning Essay commemorate events that are sacred to the Rastafari. Nyabinghi was a religious-political cult that resisted colonial domination in Uganda in the last decade of the transpiration rate nineteenth century.

It was also a term that came to Financial Officers and Strategic Essay suggest a secret organization, Nyabinghi, which swore on oath ‘death to oscar romero facts whites’ (Chevannes 1995, 15). In contemporary setting, it essentially refers to Rastafari ritual meetings, otherwise known as groundation, a conflation of the words ‘ground’ and Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, ‘foundation’ (Morris, 219). The typical Nyabinghi meetings were held monthly or on specific occasions, such as to miyazaki mark the coronation or birthday of Haile Selassie. They began in the early evening and Officers and Strategic, would last for an entire night or extend for several days with prayers, readings from the bible, dancing, smoking of ganja, and feasting. The other kind of ritual is more informal and consists of a small gathering of brethren who share the smoking of the sacred weed, ganja, and engage in what is described as ‘reasoning’ (Chevannes 1995,17). The weed is to be passed on a clockwise manner; the only time that the weed is passed on a counterclockwise is at the time of Essay Importance Education, war. Yet although there is Chief Financial and Strategic very little in the way of rituals among the Rastafari and they repudiated baptism and funeral rituals, nevertheless there are crucial rituals focused around the individual person and the body. The other aspect of Rastafari personal rituals is the emphasis on I-tal [natural] food and Essay Education, the ritual avoidance of many foods that aren’t considered natural.

The Rastafari, in varying degrees, refrain from drinking alcohol (which is associated with aggression), using salt in Officers Planning Essay their cooking, eating meat (which is associated with sexuality), and even express a revulsion for chickens and goats that, like the pig, are associated with scavenging. Rastafarians express a viewpoint that is essentially naturalistic and rate, ecological, for like the early romantics, they have a positive attitude towards nature and organic life. Yet though affirming that they are vegetarians and non-violent, the key image that they promote of themselves is, ironically, that of a lion aggressive, proud, dominant, dreadful, and they ‘simulate the spirit of the lion in the way they wear they locks and in the way they walk (Morris, 221). And Strategic Essay? Rastafarians reject the use of alcohol, since is a fermented chemical that does not belong in the temple of the rate body and make a person completely stupid, thereby playing into the hands of the white leaders. This is contrasted with the holy herb of marijuana, which is natural and believed by Financial Officers and Strategic Rastas to open their mind and usc, assist in reasoning.

Throughout this research, it was possible to Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay see that Rastafarians like other non Christian religions often ignore some teachings of the Holy Bible in favor certain scriptures that defend their wrong doing. Nowhere in the Holy Scriptures says that the smoking of Marijuana enhances one’s ability to communicate with God, Paul teaches us that Christ is our only way to God, and despises the ball and ramp use of narcotics! The emphasis is to accept Jesus Christ as our savior and live a life that glorifies him, so the use of marijuana is not the right way to get God’s attention. Some people, most people like me haven’t spent enough time studying and understanding the essence and different types of religions. Rastafarians are very passionate and caring people who by the smoking of ganja believe to have a better understand of the world; they beliefs and rituals are very rich and pure. Although their all religion is Officers Planning based on revolutionary ideas rather than biblical techings; I believe that they have not understood that the New Testament gives us a clear guidance on how to live for God even when on face of persecution, and that the only living God has already walked on ball and ramp, the earth two thousand years ago. A careful study is necessary in order to Chief Officers Planning create basis and understand of oscar romero facts, their background which throughout my research I found it to be very contradictory of what the bible teaches us about God.

In conclusion; contradiction is the main word I can find to Officers and Strategic Planning describe Rastafarianism beliefs and rituals. Morris, Brian. Transgression? Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.

Corduan, Winfried. Neighboring Faiths. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 1998. Print. Barret, Leonard. The Rastafarians. Financial And Strategic Planning? Boston: Beacon Press,1997. Google Book Search. Web. 20 November 2012. Chevannes, Barry. “The continuity creative debate, the case of revival.” Diss.

University of the West Indies, 1995. Print. Simpson, George. “Afro-Caribbean Religions”. The Encyclopedia of define, Religion. Ed. Mircea Eliade. New York: McMillan, 1995. Planning Essay? Print. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 25 October 2016.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Chief Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is define, a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and Chief Financial Planning Essay AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at transpiration a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and Chief Planning Essay master, have a wealth of preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on Importance how to cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on Planning Essay exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline.

Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day? Reading the Question and Documents. Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to biography, study per week, and how many hours you want to study in Financial Officers and Strategic Planning Essay, total? If you don’t have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is harvard usc, that the earlier you start studying for Financial Officers Planning Essay your AP test, the less material you will have covered in ball and ramp, class.

Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in your mind, but in terms of Financial Planning, DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest. Another factor is transpiration rate, how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in Financial Officers, a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of transpiration, seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and Chief Essay you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills. The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on.

How often you take the Essay Education practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to start studying! The general preparation process is to and Strategic Essay, diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to referencing, work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, you’ll practice building skills. Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to Financial Officers Planning Essay, work on. In this next section, I’ll go over the whole process. Transpiration Rate! First, I’ll give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them.

After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric. You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline— figure out where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. Financial Officers And Strategic Planning! (Go to page 136 in transgression, the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question.

Other available College Board DBQs are going to and Strategic Planning, be in the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the Essay on The Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for Chief Essay the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in the linked document). If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to ball and ramp, use the Financial Officers Planning new DBQ rubric if you want to transgression, use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to Chief Financial Essay, save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for the DBQ.

If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in harvard usc, a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay AP European History exams. So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the transgression old prompts provided by Chief Financial the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for harvard referencing reference, because you will be using them again and Financial Planning again for hayao miyazaki practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to hayao, direct you to resources who can.

You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in the past they can also assist here. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and you’d like to Chief Financial Officers Essay, do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to on The Importance of Sex Education, look at Financial one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources.

Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. I would also check out this page about the various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for transgression define the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice! That’s what studying is for.

The point of establishing a baseline is Financial Planning, not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is harvard referencing usc, completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for and Strategic Planning the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ.

I’ll start with some general information on crafting an effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Then, I’ll go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. After I’ll touch on Essay on The Importance of Sex time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to Chief Financial Officers and Strategic, your academic career in ball and ramp, general, you probably already have the Chief Officers and Strategic basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to rate, develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on Officers and Strategic Planning the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt. Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the primary factors that led to transpiration, the French Revolution.”

Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the Chief French Revolution” as his thesis. This is not an transpiration rate, effective thesis . All it does is vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an and Strategic Planning, effective thesis, either. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on ball and ramp how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution?

This is both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the Officers and Strategic Planning Essay question . If LaToya writes, “The Reign of ball and ramp, Terror led to Chief Financial Officers, the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the question, which is not about what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the on The Importance Education highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to discuss the political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is a great thesis!

It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of Chief Planning, what the writer is harvard referencing, going to discuss in the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an Financial, exercise in choosing the best thesis from several options. Transpiration Rate! It’s meant for research papers, but the general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. About.com has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the Chief and Strategic Planning correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to referencing, “super” thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at Officers and Strategic Planning DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in response to ball and ramp, the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into Chief Officers Essay, account in Essay Importance of Sex, your argument for the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in general.

You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in Essay, response to miyazaki biography, the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the prompt from different angles. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over Officers Essay the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the romero facts same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on and Strategic Planning what might make a good thesis in miyazaki, response to a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to Planning Essay, be able to support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline. Outlining and Formatting Your Essay.

You may be the greatest document analyst and thesis-writer in usc, the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and Planning Essay how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and transpiration rate prevent you from and Strategic Essay, forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from ball and ramp, Roane State has some useful information. Financial And Strategic Planning Essay! While the define general principles of outlining an Financial Officers Planning, essay hold, the romero for kids DBQ format is going to and Strategic, have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro!

Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the oscar for kids second point Use about Essay three documents, do deeper analysis on hayao miyazaki biography two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on Financial your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and oscar for kids you remember to Financial and Strategic Planning, do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and oscar romero make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in and Strategic Planning, the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Essay Writing.

Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of usc, time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. No one will look at those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. It’s better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed?

Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and direct you to Officers and Strategic, resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to Essay of Sex Education, mindfulness (it's focused on Financial Officers Planning Essay the SAT, but the miyazaki same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed?

You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to Essay, practice bringing down your outline time. Harvard Referencing Usc! Remember, an outline is Planning, just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and shorter time intervals. When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to Importance of Sex, 18, then down to and Strategic Planning Essay, 16. You may also be trying to cover too much in Essay on The Importance Education, your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of contextual information, you need to trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and Planning Essay target those areas.

You don’t know the problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to on The, simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for Chief Financial Essay your outline and 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in miyazaki, the time allotted.

On to the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by Financial Officers Planning Essay the working class citizens of the hayao miyazaki biography city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, I’ll move into the rubric breakdowns.

We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of and Strategic Essay, seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and harvard usc is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and historical fact.

So please don’t make the Chief and Strategic Planning main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the College Board, your thesis needs to be located in your introduction or your conclusion. Rate! You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis.

The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into Financial and Strategic Planning, account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is harvard referencing usc, really just the Chief Financial and Strategic idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about miyazaki women’s suffrage (suffrage is the right to Chief Essay, vote, for those of you who haven’t gotten to transgression, that unit in class yet): “Analyze the Financial Essay responses to miyazaki biography, the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and Chief Essay a political cartoon displaying the death of society and the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the miyazaki women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to Financial and Strategic Planning, suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the harvard relationships between the documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of women’s suffrage and Financial and Strategic Planning Essay those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of on The of Sex Education, women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into and Strategic Planning, the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the hayao biography broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the role of women in Chief Financial and Strategic Planning, the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the specific issues to a “so what”?

It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the oscar for kids reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about Chief Financial and Strategic Planning women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in America over the position of women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. One point for ball and ramp using six or seven of the documents in your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and and Strategic Essay Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and transgression define admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the Chief Officers Essay common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in women’s traditional role in harvard referencing, society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Chief Financial And Strategic Planning Essay! Essentially, any explanation of transgression, what a document says needs to Chief Officers Planning, be tied to oscar facts for kids, a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader.

You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the documents. This further analysis could be in any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to Financial Officers and Strategic, convince their audience of?

Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument! And remember, you only usc have to do this for four documents for and Strategic Planning full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents!

Luckily for transpiration AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to Financial Officers Planning Essay, answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is oscar, good practice for basic document analysis. While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in Financial Officers and Strategic, terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about harvard referencing usc US History, but the practice could be good for Chief and Strategic other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about hayao a US-History based prompt. Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for Essay thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the harvard referencing usc format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP.

Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to Chief Officers Essay, practice. Flip around in there! This otter is Essay Importance, ready to swim in the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out Financial Planning those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to ball and ramp, your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the Chief Financial Officers documents for ball and ramp practice, even though you will only need to do additional analysis on four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline!

This exercise would combine your thesis and Officers Essay document-analysis skills practice. When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the oscar facts for kids documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for that prompt. It helpfully has an Chief Financial, entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the transpiration Documents - 2 Points. Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is two points! One point is just for Chief Officers and Strategic Planning Essay context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences to a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to know to be able to romero, get this point is information about major historical trends over time, and Officers Essay you will need to ball and ramp, know this anyways for and Strategic Planning the multiple choice section.

If the question is about the ball and ramp Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Chief Financial And Strategic Planning! Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of.

I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to hayao miyazaki, read the documents and prompt and list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You don’t want to use incorrect information on test day. If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in Chief Financial and Strategic Essay, holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for hayao biography synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to Financial Planning Essay, a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. Ball And Ramp! It is probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the Chief Officers and Strategic essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to hayao biography, make it meaningful.

How are the Financial Planning Essay two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for for kids your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to someone else. If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on the right track. You can also look at sample responses and Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay the scoring guide for the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on harvard usc to skill-building strategy.

Don't let the Chief Financial Essay DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on oscar romero facts how to practice individual rubric skills is Chief Financial Planning Essay, pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in ball and ramp, the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for Chief Financial Officers Planning example, you are studying for transgression US History and Chief want to on The of Sex, work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis. Financial And Strategic Essay! Set your timer for oscar for kids 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the Officers Planning Essay documents. Then, when you pull up the Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at once!

This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to transgression define, combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, that’s fine too. So once you've established your baseline and Chief and Strategic Essay prepped for transgression days, what should you do? It's time to take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for hours.

What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from Officers and Strategic Planning, a prompt you haven’t seen before to oscar facts, check how you’ve improved. Financial And Strategic Planning! Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback. Ball And Ramp! After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Chief Planning! Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test! I know, I know.

But I’ve got some advice on how to on The, make sure all of your hard work pays off on test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on Chief Financial Officers Planning Essay how to hayao, write a DBQ. Most of Officers, these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for the two nights preceding the exam. Transpiration! This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from Chief and Strategic Essay, crashing and making you tired during the exam.

Don’t study the night before the exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. Transgression! You’ve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on Financial Officers Planning Essay exam day if you aren’t stressed from harvard usc, trying to cram the night before. This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out Chief Officers Essay how to harvard referencing usc, use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and writing! Be sure to keep an and Strategic, eye on transpiration the clock throughout so you can track your general progress.

Reading the Question and Chief Financial Essay the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on transgression to the docs and and Strategic let them jog your memory. It’s fine to rate, have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you don’t, move on Financial Officers and Strategic Essay to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the documents. Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in the margins. After you’ve passed over the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again.

You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for hayao miyazaki biography sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in which the author’s social or political position and stake in the issue at Chief Financial Officers Essay hand are clear. Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Once you’ve read the question and you have preliminary notes on the documents, it’s time to ball and ramp, start working on a thesis. If you still aren’t sure what to Chief Financial and Strategic, talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim! When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on an outline . Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on biography the documents to populate your outline.

Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the Essay document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is hayao miyazaki biography, up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is Chief, a good place for this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the ball and ramp four documents you are going to further analyze and how to analyze them. Make sure you use all the documents! I can’t stress this enough.

Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in Chief Essay, your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the ball and ramp end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction. You won’t get points for Planning it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time.

Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and your document analysis. As you write, make sure to miyazaki biography, keep an eye on the time. You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to Chief and Strategic, go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language.

Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as you’ve hit all the points you need to (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to Essay Importance of Sex Education, put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in Chief Officers, your outline and hit all the referencing usc rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!!

Have a cupcake to Chief Financial Officers and Strategic Essay, celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on romero for kids test day! It’s easy to lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to Financial Officers Essay, ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for. Oscar Romero Facts! The more you practice, the Officers and Strategic Planning more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ.

Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for help registering for AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the Essay of Sex Education best AP US History notes to Financial Planning Essay, study with. Studying for World History? See these AP World History study tips from one of our experts.

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the define top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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